Friday, July 01, 2016

Christology: Christ in the Qur'an.

al-Qur'an, the last of the Divine Books, revealed to Muhammad, the last of the Messengers, some six hundred years after the birth of Jesus, is a source of knowledge of prophets, especially about Jesus, which is not known to many of the Christians. The Qur'an leads us towards a better understanding of Jesus, his life and teachings, and places his role as Prophet in the vast perspective that the Unitarians realized lay behind prophecy itself. The Qur'an alone gives us that perspective -which no other source today can provide. 

The Qur'an does not cover the life of Jesus in any great detail as regards specific events. The miracles and powers which he was given are mentioned including some which are not even described in the Bible -but mostly in general terms. Similarly, the Book which Jesus was given by God, the Ingil, is mentioned several times, but its exact contents are not indicated. However, the Qur'an is very specific as to his purpose, how he appeared on earth, who he was, and, equally important, who he was not, and how his mission ended. 

Before looking at the verses which describe the life of Jesus himself, it would be helpful to examine the verses which delineate what his function on earth was, and how he fits into the broader pattern of what came before him and what was to come after him.

It is stated again and again that Jesus was one of the long line of Prophets who had been sent to the peoples of this earth; that he was a Messenger whose guidance and teachings were a reaffirmation and an extension of the guidance which the Prophets before him had brought -and a preparation for the guidance which the Prophet would bring coming after him.

The Qur'an makes it clear that Jesus was the son of Mary, the daughter of 'Imran, who was descended from the Prophet Solomon, the son of the Prophet David who was descended from Judah, one of the twelve sons of the Prophet Jacob -who was otherwise known as Israel -who was descended from the Prophet Isaac, the son of the Prophet Abraham.

The Qur'an also makes it clear that there is absolutely no doubt about the fact that Jesus was the Messiah for Israelis. It states-

And We indeed gave Moses the Book, and We made a succession of Messengers follow after him, and We gave Jesus son of Mary clear proofs and We helped him with the pure spirit (the angel Gabriel). -(Qur'an 2: 87). 

The following passage reminds us of the line of Prophets of which Jesus was a part. After referring to Abraham, it continues: 

And We gave him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob, and We guided each of them -and before that We guided Noah and, from among his descendants, David and Solomon and Job and Joseph and Moses and Aaron -and that is how We reward those who are good; and Zachariah and John and Jesus and Elijah -each of them was from among the righteous; and Ishmael and Elisha and Jonah and Lot -and We favoured each of them in all the worlds, as well as some of their forefathers and their descendants and their brothers; and We chose them and guided them to a straight path. (Qur'an 6: 84-87). 

And this list of Prophets is by no means complete, as the following passage addressed to the Prophet Muhammad, makes clear: 

Surely We have inspired you (Muhammad) just as We inspired Noah and the Prophets after him, as We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes (of Israel) and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and David to whom We gave the Zabur, and Messengers whom we have told you about and Messengers whom we have not told you about, and Moses to whom God spoke directly - Messengers who brought good news and a warning so that mankind would not have any argument against God after the Messengers; and God has always been Mighty, Wise. -(Qur'an 4: 163-165). 

In fact the Prophet Muhammad said that Jesus was one of 124,000 or 144,000 Prophets, between whom there is no cause for conflict or argument. Quran says-

O Messengers, eat what is good and do good -surely I am aware of what you do -and Indeed this, you all are of the same religion, and I am your Lord, so fear Me. -(Qur'an 23: 51-52). 


You will never find in the way of Allah any change, and you will never find in the way of Allah any alteration.-(35:43) He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, [ Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus -to establish the religion and not be divided therein. -(42:13)


Indeed, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam. -(3:19) So is it other than the religion of Allah they desire..? -(3:83) And whoever desires other than Islam as religion - never will it be accepted from him, and he, in the Hereafter, will be surely among the losers.--(3:85) 


Thus God commands the Muslims as follows: 


Say: 'We believe in God, and in what has been revealed to us, and in what was revealed to Abraham and to Ishmael and to Isaac and to Jacob and to the Tribes (of Israel), and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord -we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted" -(Qur'an 3: 84).


Now a Question arises, how those book, and religion changed and differ with Islam? Quran answered-


And those who were given the Scripture did not differ except after knowledge had come to them - out of jealous animosity between themselves. -(3:19)


Thus, it is clear from the Qur'an that all of the Prophets were well aware that they had been sent by God for the same purpose and with basically the same message: 

And when We made a covenant with the Prophets -with you (Muhammad), and with Noah, and Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus son of Mary -and We made them make a solemn covenant, so that the truthful might be asked about their truthfulness -and He has prepared a painful punishment for the disbelievers. -(Qur'an 33: 7-8). 

Part of the covenant which all the Prophets made with God was to tell their followers about the coming of Muhammad, and to follow him should he come during their lifetime: 

And When God made His covenant with the Prophets, (He said), 'This is what I have given you as a Book and wisdom, and then a Messenger (Muhammad) will come to you confirming what you have -and you will believe in him and you will help him." He said, 'Will you be bound by this and will you accept this obligation?' 
They replied, 'We will be bound by it."
He said, 'Then bear witness to it - and I will bear witness with you - and as for whoever turns away after this, then they will be the ones who disobey". (Qur'an 3: 81-82). 

Thus the picture of Jesus which unfolds in the Qur'an is not that of some remarkable man who appeared on earth as an isolated event in an otherwise somewhat chaotic world, but of a Messenger who, like all the other Messengers, was sent for his time and his age, a part of the ordered unfolding of the universe: 

And We sent Jesus son of Mary in their footsteps, confirming what was (revealed) before him in the Torah; and We gave him the Ingil -in which there was guidance and light- confirming what was (revealed) before it in the Torah, and a guidance and a warning for those who fear God. And let the people of the Ingil judge by what God has revealed in it. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed, then it is those who are the defiantly disobedient. -(Qur'an 5: 46-47). 

And Furthermore, a time which, as Jesus was well aware, had limits -a time which was bounded by the time before his time, and by the time after it: 

And when Moses said to his people, 'O my people, why do you persecute me when you well know that I am the Messenger of God to you?' So when they went astray God sent their hearts astray.  For God does not guide the defiantly disobedient people. 

And
When Jesus son of Mary said, 'O Tribe of Israel, surely I am the Messenger of God to you, confirming what was (revealed) before me in the Torah, and bringing good news of a Messenger who will come after me, whose name is the Praised One (Ahmad).' ('Ahmad' is one of the names of the Prophet Muhammad, meaning 'the Most Praiseworthy', 'the One who Distinguishes between Truth and Falsehood', and 'the Comforter'. Its equivalent in Greek is 'Parakletos' or 'Varakleitos', meaning 'the Comforter' or 'the Praised One') Yet when he came to them with clear proofs, they said, 'This is clearly magic.' 

So, God Advises Muslims, the believers as: 

And Who does greater wrong than the one who makes up a lie against God when he is called to Islam? And God does not guide people who do wrong. They desire to put out the Light of God with their words, but God will perfect His Light however much those who disbelieve detest it. He it is Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the true religion, so that He may make it overcome all other religions, however much the idol worshippers detest it. 

O you who trust, shall I lead you to a bargain that will save you from a painful punishment? You should believe in God and His Messenger, and fight in the way of God with your wealth and yourselves. That is better for you, if only you knew. He will forgive you your wrong actions and bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in Gardens of Eden. That is the supreme success. And He will give you something else that you love: Help from God and victory that is near -and give good news to the believers! 

O you who believe, be God's helpers, just as when Jesus son of Mary said to the disciples, 'Who will be my helpers for God? and the disciples replied, 'We are God's helpers.' 
And a party of the Tribe of Israel believed, and a party disbelieved, and We strengthened those who believed against their enemy, and so they became the ones who prevailed. -(Qur'an 61: 5-14). 

Jesus's conception and birth are recorded by the Qur'an in great detail. It would be illuminating to begin with his mother's birth and upbringing, for it helps us to see how Mary was chosen and prepared by God to be the mother of Jesus: 

Surely God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of 'Imran above all the worlds -they were descended from each other -and God is Hearing, Knowing. (And remember) when the wife of 'Imran said, 'My Lord, surely I have vowed that what is in my womb will be dedicated to You - so accept it from me. Surely it is You Who are the Hearer, the Knower.'  


And 
When she had given birth to her, she said, 'My Lord, surely I have given birth to a girl,' and God knew best to whom she had given birth -a boy is not like a girl, 'and surely I have named her Mary, and surely I seek protection in You for her and her offspring from the outcast shaytan."

And
Her Lord accepted her with complete acceptance, and made her grow in complete health, and made Zachariah her guardian.  (Qur'an 3: 33-37). 

And

you (Muhammad) were not there with them when they cast their reeds (to decide) which of them should be Mary's guardian, and you were not there with them when they argued about it. (Qur'an 3: 44). 

And whenever Zachariah entered the sanctuary where she was, he found that she had food. He said, 'O Mary, from where has this come?' 
She replied, 'It is from God -surely God provides for whom- ever He wishes without reckoning.'  (Qur'an 3: 37).

And
When the angels said, 'O Mary, surely God has chosen you, and He has made you pure, and He has preferred you above all women in all the worlds. O Mary, be obedient to your Lord, and prostrate and bow down in worship (before Him) with those who bow down in worship." 

This is from tidings of the Unseen which We reveal to you (Muhammad) -(Qur'an 3: 42-44). And (Remember) the one who remained chaste (Mary), and so We breathed in her of Our Spirit, and made her and her son (Jesus) a sign for all the worlds. (Qur'an 21: 91). 

John was the Prophet who was at the same time of Jesus. It is said that his mother, Elisabeth, and Mary's mother, Hannah, were either sisters or cousins, which means that Jesus and John were cousins. The miraculous birth of John is also mentioned in the Quran. It was stated when Zachariah found Mary had fruit that was not seasonal, and Mary said that were from God, he realized that God may given him a son too:

Then Zachariah prayed to his Lord, saying, 'My Lord, grant me good offspring from Your presence - surely You hear prayer."-(Qur'an 3: 38).


And
When Zachariah called to his Lord, 'My Lord, do not leave me without a child -and You are the best of those who grant inheritance."
And We heard his prayer, and We gave him John, and We made his wife fertile -surely they were swift to do good, and they prayed to Us with longing and fear, and they were in awe of Us. (Qur'an 21: 89-90). 

And
The angels called to him as he stood in prayer in the sanctuary, 'Surely God gives you good news of John, who will confirm a Word (Jesus) from God, and who will be honourable and chaste and one of the righteous Prophets."
He said, 'My Lord, how can I have a son, when I have become old and my wife is barren?' 
He replied, 'Just like that - God does what He wants."
He said, 'My Lord, give me a sign."
He replied, 'Your sign shall be that you will not speak to anyone for three days except by sign-language, and remember your Lord much and glorify Him at nightfall and in the early morning." -(Qur'an 3: 38-41).

And now, God describing the above birth story of John to Muhammad as:

And (this is) a reminder of the mercy of your Lord to His slave, Zachariah, when he called to his Lord in secret prayer, saying, 'My Lord, surely my bones have become fragile, and my head shines with grey hair, and my prayers to You, my Lord, have never been in vain, and surely I am concerned about who will succeed me, as my wife is barren - so grant me a successor from Your presence who will inherit from me, and who will inherit from the family of Jacob, and make him, my Lord, pleasing (to You)."

(It was said to him), 'O Zachariah, surely We give you good news of a son whose name is John - and We have never given that name to anyone before him." 
He said, 'My Lord, how can I have a son when my wife is barren and I have become old and weak?' 
He replied, 'Just like that - your Lord says, "It is easy for Me, just as I created you in the past, when you were not anything." 
He said, 'My Lord, give me a sign."
He replied, 'Your sign shall be that you will not speak to anyone for three nights even though you are well."
Then he came out to his people from the sanctuary and gestured to them to glorify (God) in the early morning and at nightfall. 

(And it was said to his son), 'O John, hold fast to the Book!' And We gave him wisdom when he was a boy, and compassion from Our presence, and purity -and he was devout, and he was kind to his parents, and he was never tyrannical or rebellious. So peace be on him the day he was born, and the day he died, and the day he will be brought back to life! (Qur'an 19: 2-15). 

The story of the miraculous conception and birth of Jesus described in the Qur'an as:

And mention Mary in the Book -when she withdrew from her people to a place in the east and chose seclusion from them, then We sent Our spirit (the angel Gabriel) to her, and he appeared to her as a perfect man. She said, 'Surely I seek refuge in the Merciful One from you, if you fear God."

He said, 'Surely I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to give you news of a pure son."
She replied, 'How can I have a son when no man has touched me, and when I have never been immoral?' 
He said, 'Just like that -your Lord says, "It is easy for Me -and We shall make him a sign for mankind, and a mercy from Us -and it is something which has already been decreed."' -(Qur'an 19: 16-21). 

And God describing the above birth story of Jesus to Muhammad as: 

(And remember) when the angels said, 'O Mary, surely God gives you good news of a Word from Him, whose name is the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, who will be honoured in this world and in the next world, and who will be one of those who are near (to God) -and he will speak to people from his cradle and when he is a man, and he will be one of those who are righteous."

She replied, 'My Lord, how can I have a child, when no man has touched me?' 
He replied, 'Just like that -God creates whatever He wants. When He decrees something, then all He says to it is, "Be!" and it is. And He will teach him the Book, and wisdom, and the Torah, and the Ingil, and he will be a Messenger to the Tribe of Israel, (saying), "Surely I have come to you with a sign from your Lord -surely I will make the shape of a bird from clay for you, and then breathe into it, and it will become a bird by the permission of God; and I will heal him who was born blind and the leper, and I will bring the dead to life by the permission of God; and I will tell you what you have had to eat and what you have stored away in your houses -surely in that there is certainly a sign for you, if you are believers. And (I have come) to confirm what was before me from the Torah, and to make some of what used to be forbidden for you lawful for you -and I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear God and obey me. Surely God is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him -that is the straight path." (Qur'an 3: 45-51).

And

So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a place which was far away, and the pains of child- birth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree -she said, 'O would that I had died before this and become nothing, forgotten!'

An

Then it was said to her from below her, 'Do not be sad -your Lord has placed a small stream beneath you, and shake the trunk of the palm tree towards you -you will make fresh ripe dates fall around you. So eat and drink and be comforted. And if you meet any man, then say, "Surely I have made a vow to the Merciful One to fast, and I may not speak to anyone today." -(Qur'an 19: 22-26). 

And:
Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, 'O Mary, you have indeed come with something deceitful! O sister of Aaron, your father was not a wicked man, and your mother was never immoral!' Then she pointed to him. 
They said, 'How can we talk to a baby in his cradle?' 

He said, 'Surely I am the slave of God - He has given me the Book, and He has made me a Prophet, and He has made me blessed wherever I may be, and He has made the prayer and zakat obligatory for me as long as I live, and He has made me obedient towards the one who bore me, and He has not made me tyrannical or ungrateful -and peace be on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be brought back to life!' 

Narrating upto this, God said to Muhammad: 

Such was Jesus son of Mary -(this is) a statement of the truth about which they are in doubt. It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, "Be," and it is

[whereas Jesus said], "And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the straight path." (Qur'an 19: 27-36).

In this world both Jesus and Mary are signs to the mankind and in the hereafter, when they placed in the Paradise their place shall be higher too. Qur'an says:- 

And We made a sign of the son of Mary and his mother, and We gave them a place of refuge in a high place, where there was safety and running water. -(Qur'an 23: 50). 
Jesus's childhood, and his early manhood, are not mentioned in the Qur'an. But after the prophethood when he began to call the Tribe of Israel to only worship God and to follow the teachings of Moses which were in the Torah. the Israelis disbelief him except a few:

And (remember) when I inspired the disciples to, "Believe in Me and in My Messenger," and they said, "We believe, so bear witness that we are Muslims!'" -(Qur'an 5: 111). 


And When Jesus perceived their disbelief, he said, 'Who will be my helpers for God?' 
The disciples replied, 'We are God's helpers -we believe in God, so bear witness that we are Muslims! O our Lord, we believe in what You have revealed and we follow the Messenger, so record us among those who bear witness." -(Qur'an 3: 52-53). 


And
When the disciples said, 'O Jesus son of Mary, is your Lord able to send down a table from heaven for us?' 
He replied, Tear God if you are believers!' 
They said, 'We want to eat from it, and put our hearts at ease, and know that you have told us the truth, and be among those who witness it.' 

Jesus son of Mary said, 'O God, our Lord, send down a table from heaven for us with a feast for us, for the first of us and the last of us, and as a sign from You, and provide for us - and You are the Best of those who provide."


God said, 'Surely I will send it down for you -and if any of you disbelieves afterwards, then I will surely punish him with a punishment with which I have never punished anyone else in all the worlds before!' (Qur'an 5: 112-115).

God address to the Muslims referring the disciples of Jesus

O you who believe, be God' helpers, just as when Jesus son of Mary said to the disciples, 'Who will be my helpers for God?' and the disciples replied, 'We are God's helpers." 
And a party of the Tribe of Israel believed, and a party disbelieved, and We strengthened those who believed against their enemy, and so they became the ones who prevailed. -(Qur'an 61: 14). 

The conflict between those who accepted Jesus and those who rejected him, often focused around his extraordinary miracles, which he always attributed to God and not to himself. It is not surprising, in view of these miracles, that some of those who accepted Jesus did so rather too enthusiastically, and in so doing mistakenly considered him to be the 'son' of God, thereby idolizing him and making him an object of worship. God refers to this misconception in the following passage from Surat al-Ma'ida, which refers to God's questioning all His Messengers on the day of Judgement: 

On the Day when God will gather all the Messengers together and will say, 'What was the response to you?' they will say, 'We do not know -surely it is only You Who knows what is hidden.' 

And
God will say, 'O Jesus son of Mary, remember My blessing on you and on your mother - how I strengthened you with the pure spirit (the angel Gabriel), so that you spoke to people from the cradle and as a man; and how I taught you the Book, and wisdom and the Torah and the Ingil; and how you made the shape of a bird from clay by My permission, and then breathed into it, so that it became a bird by My permission; and how you healed him who was born blind and the leper by My permission; and how you raised the dead by My permission; and how I restrained the Tribe of Israel from harming you when you came to them with clear proofs, and those of them who disbelieved said, "Surely this is nothing but magic" -(Qur'an 5: 109-110). 

And
When God says, 'O Jesus son of Mary, did you say to people, 'Take me and my mother as two gods instead of God,?' he will reply, 'Glory be to You - it Was not for me to say what I had no right to say! If I ever said that, then You would certainly know it. You know what is in me, and I do not know what is in You - surely it is only You Who knows what is hidden. I only told them what You commanded me - to, ''Worship God, my Lord and your Lord."' and while I dwelt among them I was a watcher over them, and when You took me up, then You were a Watcher over them - and You watch over everything. If You punish them, then surely they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, then surely You are the Mighty, the Wise." 

God will say, This is a Day when the truthful will benefit from their truthfulness, for gardens underneath which rivers flow will be theirs, dwelling there for ever -God is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him that is the great success."
The dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is in them belongs to God - and He has power over everything. (Qur'an 5: 116-120). 

Elsewhere in the Qur'an, God makes it perfectly clear that both Jesus and Mary were only human beings: 

The Messiah son of Mary was only a Messenger like the Messengers who went before him and his mother was a truthful woman and they both used to eat food. See how We clarify the signs for them -and then see how they make up lies! 

Say: 'Do you worship what does not have any power to either harm or benefit you, instead of God?' And it is God Who is the One Who Hears, the One Who Knows. (Qur'an 5: 75-76). 

And 
They say, 'God has chosen a son! Glory be to Him! Indeed whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His. Everything is subservient to Him, the Bringer into Being of the heavens and the earth -and when He decrees a matter, then all He says to it is 'Bel' and it is. (Qur'an 2: 116-117). 

And 
God has not chosen any son, and there is not any other god as well as Him -otherwise each god would certainly have taken over what it had created, and some would have exalted themselves over others. Glory be to God above what they assert -the Knower of the Unseen and the Seen, may He be exalted far above the partners they associate with Him! (Qur'an 23: 91-92). 

And 
Surely the life-transaction is only for God. And those who choose guardians other than Him (say), 'We only worship them so that they will bring us nearer to God."- Surely God will judge between them concerning what they used to disagree about. Surely God does not guide whoever denies in disbelief. If God had wanted to have a son, He could certainly have chosen whatever He wanted from His creation - Glory be to Him! He is God, the One, the Compelled. (Qur'an 39: 3-4). 

Say:
'If the Merciful did have a son, then I would be the foremost of the worshippers." Glory be to the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne, above what they assert. (Qur'an 43: 81-82). 

And: 
And certainly if you ask them, 'Who created the heavens and the earth?' They will certainly say, 'God", Say: 'Do you not see, regarding whatever you pray to instead of God, that if God wished to harm me, how could they protect me from His harm -or if He wished to show mercy to me, how could they withhold His mercy?' 
Say: 'God is enough for me - in Him do those who trust put their trust. (Qur 'an 39: 38). 
Say: 'Are you telling me to worship other than God? - You fools!' (Qur'an 39: 64). 

And: 
Blessed is the One Who has revealed the Discrimination (between right and wrong) to His slave (Muhammad), so that he might be a warner to all the worlds -the One to Whom the dominion of the heavens and the earth belongs -and He has not chosen a son, and He does not have any partner to share the dominion, and He has created everything and determined its destiny. And yet they have chosen gods instead of Him who cannot create anything but are themselves created, and who do not have any power either to harm or to benefit themselves, and who do not have any power over either death, or life, or raising the dead! (Qur'an 25: 1-3). 

And: 
And they say, 'The Merciful has chosen a son. You have indeed come up with something terrible -so that the heavens are almost torn apart, and the earth split open, and the mountains scattered in pieces -that you should claim that the Merciful has a son! And it is not in the nature of things for the Merciful to choose a son -when every one in the heavens and the earth only comes to the Merciful as a slave. He certainly knows them all - and He knows their number exactly -and each of them will come to Him on the Day of Standing, alone. (Qur'an 19: 88-95). 

And
We did not send any Messenger in the past without inspiring in him, 'Surely there is no god except Me - so worship Me. And they say, 'The Merciful has chosen a son. Glory be to Him! -They are only slaves who have been honoured: 

They do not speak before He has spoken, and what they do is by His command. He knows what is ahead of them and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except on behalf of whomever is pleasing to Him, and they tremble in fear of Him. And if one of them were to say, 'Surely I am God and not Him, then we would repay anyone like that with Hell -hat is how We reward wrong doers. (Qur'an 21: 25-29). 

And: 
They say: 'God has chosen a son. -Glory be to Him! -He is the Self-Sufficient! Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth belongs to Him. You do not have any authority for (saying) this. Why do you say things about God of which you have no knowledge? 
Say: 'Surely those who make up a lie about God will not be successful. They will pass their time in this world, and then to Us they will return, and then We will make them taste intense punishment because they used to disbelieve. (Qur'an 10: 68-70). 

Thus in the opening ayat of Surat al-Kahf, God states that one of the reasons why the Qur 'an has been revealed is to warn those who claim that God has a son:

In the Name of God the Merciful the Compassionate Praise belongs to God Who has revealed the Book to His slave (Muhammad). And He has not put any distortion in it, only clarity, in order to warn of a severe punishment from Him, and to give good news to the believers who do good that theirs will be a good reward, where they will dwell for ever, and to warn those who say, 'God has chosen a son. which is something they know nothing about, and neither did their fathers. The words which they utter are dreadful -surely what they say is nothing but a lie. (Qur'an 18: 1-5). 

For: 
It is not how it is for God to choose any son. -Glory be to Him! -When He decrees a matter, then all He says to it is 'Be!' and it is. (Qur'an 19: 35). 

And: 
O mankind, a simile is coined for you -so pay attention to it: Surely those to whom you pray instead of God could never create a fly, even if they all tried together -and if the fly took something from them, they could not retrieve it from it: How weak are both the seeker and the sought! (Qur'an 22: 73). 

Thus it also follows that anyone who thinks -by virtue of Mary's degree of perfection, and by virtue of the miraculous nature of the immaculate conception -that Jesus can somehow be associated with being God in any way is mistaken: 

Those who say, 'Surely God is the Messiah, son of Mary.have indeed disbelieved. 

Say: 'And who would have any power at all over God if He wished to destroy the Messiah son of Mary, and his mother, and whoever is on earth, all together? And dominion over the heavens and the earth and what is between them belongs to God -He creates what He wants -and God has power over everything. (Qur'an 5: 17). 

It also follows that any concept of a Trinity is false: 

O People of the Book, do not go to extremes in your religion, and do not say anything about God except the truth. Surely the Messiah Jesus son of Mary was a Messenger of God, and His Word which He sent down into Mary, and a Spirit from Him -so believe in God and His Messengers, and do not say, 'Three, Stop it! (That would be) better for you. Surely God is only One God! Glory be to Him - far beyond His having a son -when whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His. And God is enough to look after it. 

The Messiah would never be too proud to be a slave of God, and neither would the angels who are near (to God). And as for whoever is too proud to be His slave, and is arrogant, He will gather them altogether to Him. And as for those who believed and did good, He will give them their reward in full, and increase it for them out of His generosity -and as for those who were proud and arrogant, He will punish them with a painful punishment, and they will not find anyone to be their friend or helper instead of God. (Qur'an 4: 171-173). 

And: 
Those who say, 'Surely God is the Messiah, son of Mary.are certainly disbelievers. And the Messiah said: 'O Tribe of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord. As for whoever associates partners with God, surely God has certainly forbidden him the Garden and his abode will be the Fire - and for the wrong doers there will be no helpers. Those who say, 'Surely God is one of three in a trinity, are certainly disbelievers -for there is no god except the One God. And if they do not desist from what they are saying, a painful punishment will certainly befall those of them who disbelieve. Will they not rather turn to God in repentance and seek His forgiveness? And God is Forgiving, Compassionate. (Qur'an 5: 72-74). 

Jesus is also referred to in this passage from Surat al-Baqara, in which God indicates that although some of His Messengers were more blessed than others, this does not mean that they were not human beings:

And of these Messengers We have made some to excel others; among them are those to whom God spoke, and among them are those whom He exalted in degree above others; and We gave Jesus son of Mary clear signs and strengthened him with the pure spirit (the angel Gabriel). And if God had wanted, those who came after them would not have fought with each other, after the clear signs that had come to them -but they differed, and from among them were those who believed, and from among them were those who disbelieved; and if God had wanted, they would not have fought with each other, but God does what He wants. (Qur'an 2: 253) 

Thus in spite of his extraordinary purity, and the piercing clarity of his words and signs, there were inevitably people who rejected Jesus, both while he was on earth and after he had been taken away from it: 

And
When the son of Mary is given as an example your people turn away from it and say, 'Are our gods better, or him?' And they only mention him for the sake of argument- indeed, they are an argumentative people! Surely he was only a slave whom We blessed, and whom We gave as an example to the Tribe of Israel. And if We had wanted, We could certainly have put angels among you to be leaders in the earth; and surely there is certainly knowledge about the Hour, so do not be in any doubt about it, and follow Me- that is the straight path; and do not let shaytan lead you astray - surely he is clearly your enemy. 

And
When Jesus came with clear proofs, he said, 'I have indeed come to you with wisdom and in order to clarify what you used to disagree about for you- so fear God and obey me. Surely it is God Who is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him- that is the straight path. 
But the groups among them disagreed- so woe to those who do wrong, from the punishment of a painful Day. (Qur'an 43: 57-65). 

And: 
And We certainly sent Noah and Abraham, and placed the prophethood and the Book among their descendants: among them is he who is rightly guided, and many of them are evil-livers. Then We made Our Messengers follow in their footsteps, and We made Jesus son of Mary follow on, and We gave him the Ingil, and We placed compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him; and it was they who invented monasticism. -We did not ordain it for them- only seeking the pleasure of God; but they did not observe it with true observance, so We give those of them who believe their reward but many of them are evil livers. (Qur'an 57: 26-27). 

Although both the Romans and the Pharisees wanted Jesus dead, albeit for different reasons, God makes it clear that they did not kill Jesus, even though it was their intention to do so: 

And they plotted, and God plotted- and God is the best of plotters. (And remember) when God said, 'O Jesus, surely I am going to take you up, and raise you up to Me, and free you from those who disbelieve- and I will put those who follow you above those who disbelieve until the Day of Standing- and then you will all return to Me, and I will judge between you concerning what you used to disagree about. And as for those who disbelieve, I shall punish them with an intense punishment in this world and in the next world - and they will not have any helpers. And as for those who believe and do good, He will give them their reward in full- and God does not love wrong doers. 'And what We are telling you is from among the signs, and a wise reminder. 

The example of Jesus, as far as GOD is concerned, is the same as that of Adam. He created him from dust, and then said to him, 'Be!'- and he is. This is the truth from your Lord, so do not be one of those who doubt. 

And as for whoever argues with you about him (Jesus), after the knowledge which has come to you, then say: 'Come, let us summon our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves, and then let us humbly pray, and invoke the curse of God upon those who lie. 

Surely this explanation is certainly true, and there is not any god except God - and surely God is certainly the Mighty, the Wise. And if they turn away, then surely God is aware of those who are corrupt. (Qur 'an 3: 54-63). 

God also refers to the fact that Jesus was neither killed nor crucified in the following passage from Surat an-Nisa, in which He describes the consequences of the actions of those from among the Tribe of Israel who disbelieved and broke their covenant with God: 

And because of their breaking their covenant, and their rejecting the signs of God, and their killing the Prophets without any justification, and their saying, 'Our hearts are covered over- indeed God has set a seal on them because of their disbelief so that they will not believe except for a few -and because of their disbelief and their spreading a great slander against Mary, and their saying, 'Surely we killed the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary', a Messenger of God -and they did not kill him and they did not crucify him, but it appeared so to them. And surely those who disagree about it are certainly in doubt about it; they have no knowledge about it but only follow speculation. And they did not kill him for certain, but God took him up to Himself. And God was ever Mighty, Wise

And
There is not one of the People of the Book but will certainly believe in him before his death, and on the Day of Standing he will be a witness against them -and because of the wrong doing of the Jews, We forbade them the good things which were permitted for them (before), and because of their turning away from the way of God so much, and their taking usury -and they were indeed forbidden it- and their devouring people's wealth through deception, We have prepared a painful punishment for those of them who disbelieve. But those of them who are firm in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been revealed to you (Muhammad), and in what has been revealed before you - and those who establish the prayer, and those who pay the zakat, and those who believe in God and the Last Day -to these we shall give a great reward. (Qur'an 4: 155-162). 

The Qur'an makes it clear that the last Messenger to be sent by God, not only to the Tribe of Israel, but to all mankind, and to the jinn, was the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, who confirmed the teachings of both Moses and Jesus, while at the same time simplifying and abrogating their Law: 

And
God indeed made a covenant with the Tribe of Israel, and We raised up twelve leaders from among them, and God said: 'Surely I am with you. If you establish the prayer and pay the zakat, and accept My Messengers and honour them, and lend to God a good loan, surely I will remit your sins, and surely I will bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow. So whoever of you disbelieves after this will certainly go astray from the right way.

And because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them and made their hearts grow hard. They separate words from their meanings and forget about part of what they have been reminded; and you will not cease finding treachery from all except a few of them -but forgive them and pardon them. Surely God loves those who do good. 

And
We made a covenant with those who say, 'Surely we are Christians, but they forgot a part of what they had been reminded -so We have stirred up enmity and hatred among them until the Day of Standing, when God will show them what they were doing. 

O People of the Book, now has Our Messenger (Muhammad) indeed come to you, making clear to you much of what you used to hide in the Book, and forgiving much. Now there has indeed come to you from God a Light and a clear Book, whereby God guides whoever seeks His pleasure to paths of peace - and He brings them out of darkness into light by His decree, and guides them to a straight path. -(Qur'an 5: 12-16). 

As the above passage indicates, it was inevitable that when the Prophet Muhammad, began to call people to only worship God, many of them would be those who claimed to be following either Moses or Jesus, and it is for this reason that there are so many passages in the Qur'an which are addressed to such people, who are often referred to as the 'People of the Book' a title indicating -more then than now -both their common genealogical link with the Tribe of Israel as well as the fact that their way of life was, and is, at least to some extent still based on one of the earlier divine revelations. 

Although many of these passages may appear to have been directed primarily towards the followers of Middle Eastern and North African Judaism and Christianity who were alive when the Qur'an was first revealed during the early 7th century AD, it is clear that they often apply equally, if not more so, to the followers of the various European versions of Judaism and Christianity which, as we have already seen, developed at a later stage. It is equally clear that they still often apply towards today's Jews and Christians, whatever the version of Judaism or Christianity that they may now claim to be following. In the Qur'an God promises those from among the People of the Book who are sincere in their actions that they will have nothing to fear: 

Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sabaeans and the Christians - whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does good -they shall not be afraid and they shall not be sad. (Qur'an 5: 69). 

And that they will receive what is due to them: 

Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Christians and the Sabaeans -whoever believes in God and the Last Day and does good -surely their reward is with their Lord and they shall not be afraid and they shall not be sad. (Qur'an 2: 62). 

And that God will judge between them on the Last Day: 

Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sabaeans and the Christians and the Magians and those who worship idols -surely God will judge between them on the Day of Standing; surely God is Witness of every thing. (Qur'an 22: 17). 

Again, when addressing the Muslims, God says: 

You are the best community that has been raised up for mankind, commanding what is good and forbidding what is bad and believing in God. And if only the People of the Book had believed, it would certainly have been better for them. Some of them are believers, but most of them are evil livers. They will not harm you except for a little annoyance, and if they fight against you they will turn their backs on you and flee - and then they will not be helped. They will be stamped with humiliation wherever they are found, except when they have a covenant with God and a covenant with people - for they have incurred the anger of God and so poverty will be stamped on them - that is because they rejected the signs of God and killed the Prophets without any justification. That is because they rebelled and were wicked. 

They are not all alike. There is an upright community of the People of the Book who recite the revelations of God in the night time and who prostrate themselves (before Him). They believe in God and the Last Day, and they command what is right and forbid what is wrong, and they are swift to do good -and these are among the righteous, and as for whatever good they do, none of it will be rejected. And God knows those who are devout. (Qur'an 3: 110-115). 

And: 
And surely among the People of the Book there are some who believe in God and in what has been revealed to you and in what has been revealed to them -humble before God, they do not exchange the signs of God for something of little value. As for them, their reward is with their Lord - surely God is swift at the reckoning. (Qur'an 3: 199), 

And: 
As for those to whom We gave the Book before it (the Qur'an), they believe in it, and when it is recited to them they say, 'We believe in it - surely it is the truth from our Lord - surely even before it we were Muslims. These will be given their reward twice over - because they are patient, and they repel evil with good, and they spend from what We have provided for them, and when they hear idle talk they turn away from it and say, To us our actions, and to you your actions, peace on you, we do not want to be among those who are ignorant. (Qur'an 28: 52-55). 

And: 
O you who believe, fear God and believe in His Messenger (Muhammad), and He will give you a double taste of His mercy, and He will give you a light in which to walk, and He will forgive you - and God is Forgiving, Compassionate -so that the People of the Book may know that they do not have any control over any of the generosity of God, and that generosity is in God's hand to give to whomever He wishes -and God's generosity is vast. (Qur'an 57: 28-29). 

And: 
And do not argue with the People of the Book -except for those of them who do wrong - unless it is with what is best, and say, 'We believe in what has been revealed to us and in what has been revealed to you - and our God and your God is One, and it is to Him that we submit. (Qur'an 29: 46). 

It is clear from the following passages, however, that not all of the Jews and the Christians have the same attitude or degree of understanding: 

And They say, 'No one will enter the Garden except for whoever is a Jew or a Christian. This is what they want. Say: 'Show your proof, if you are speaking the truth. Indeed, and as for whoever submits his will to God while doing good, then his reward is with his Lord -and they shall not be afraid and they shall not be sad- And the Jews say, The Christians do not have anything. and the Christians say, The Jews do not have anything; -and they both recite the Book! That is how those who do not know speak - and God will judge between them, concerning what they used to disagree about, on the Day of Standing. (Qur'an 2: 111-113). 

And 
The Jews and the Christians say, 'We are sons of God and His loved ones; Say: Then why does He pun- ish you for your wrong actions?' -Certainly you are human beings whom He has created. He forgives whom- ever He wishes, and He punishes whomever He wishes, and dominion over the heavens and the earth and what is between them belongs to God - and the journeying is to Him. (Qur'an 5: 18). 

And certainly God makes it clear that He can forgive anything except shirk, which is worshipping other than Him instead of Him: 

Surely God does not forgive partners being associated with Him, but He forgives whomever He wishes anything other than that - and whoever associates partners with God has certainly gone far astray. (Qur'an 4: 116). 

And certainly God makes it clear that it is He Who decides who is for the Fire and who is for the Garden, and not anyone else: 

And as for those who believe and do good, We shall bring them into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, in which they will dwell for ever. It is a promise from God which is true, and who can be more truthful than God in what is said? It will not be as you wish, and it will not be as the People of the Book wish: Whoever does evil will receive its reward -and will not find any friend or any helper other than God. And whoever does good -whether male or female -and is a believer, then they will enter the Garden, and they will not be wronged (even as much as) the speck on a date-stone. And who is better in their life-transaction than whoever submits their will to God while doing good and follows the way of Abraham, the naturally pure? -And God chose Abraham as an intimate friend. And whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth belongs to God, and God is always encompassing everything. (Qur'an 4: 122-126). 

Thus it is the pure and simple life-transaction embodied by Abraham to which all believers today are called: 

And they say, 'Be Jews or Christians, and you will be rightly guided. 

Say: 'No, rather the way of Abraham, the naturally pure -and he was not one of the idol worshippers; 

Say: 'We believe in God and in what has been revealed to us and in what was revealed to Abraham and to Ishmael and to Isaac and to Jacob and to the tribes (of Israel), and in what Moses and Jesus were given and in what the Prophets received from their Lord; we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered; And if they believe in the like of what you believe in, then they are rightly guided; and if they turn away, then they have separated; and God is enough for you; and He is the Hearer, the Knower. '(We take our) colour from God - and who is better than God at giving colour? -and we are His worshippers; 


Say: 'Are you going to argue with us about God, when He is our Lord and your Lord? We have our actions, and you have your actions, and we are being sincere to Him -or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes (of Israel) were Jews or Christians?' 

Say: 'Do you know best, or does God? (Qur'an 2: 135-140). 

Thus the Qur'an makes it clear that the Muslims are those who believe not only in the Prophet Muhammad, but also in all the Prophets who came before him, and in the One Who sent them, and in the prophetic life-transaction which they all shared and embodied: 

Say:
'O People of the Book, let us come to an agreement between us and you: that we shall worship none but God, and that we shall not associate any partner with Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords instead of God; And if they turn away, then say: 'Bear witness that we are Muslims. 

O People of the Book, why do you argue about Abraham, when the Torah and the Ingil were not revealed until after him? Have you no intellect? You certainly argue about what you have some knowledge about, but why argue about what you have no knowledge about? - And God knows, and you do not know. Abraham was not a Jew, and he was not a Christian, but he was naturally pure -a Muslim -and he was not one of those who worship idols. Surely the people who are closest to Abraham are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad), and those who believe - and God is the Friend of the believers. 

A party of the People of the Book would love to lead you astray -but they do not lead anyone astray except themselves, although they do not perceive this. O People of the Book, why do you reject the signs of God, when you witness them? O People of the Book, why do you cover up the truth with falsehood and knowingly conceal the truth? And a party of the People of the Book say, 'Believe in what has been revealed to those who believe at the start of the day, and then at its end reject it, so that perhaps they may return (to disbelief) -and do not believe anyone except whoever follows your own religion; 

say: 'Surely God's guidance is the guidance -whether (or not) anyone is given the like of what you were given, and whether (or not) they argue with you in the presence of your Lord; 

Say: 'Surely generosity is in God's hand -He gives it to whomever He wants -and God is Immense, Knowing. He chooses whomever He wishes for His mercy -and God's generosity is vast.' 

And from among the People of the Book there is the one who, if you entrust him with a qintar, will return it to you -and from among them is the one who, if you entrust him with a dinar, will not return it to you unless you keep on asking him for it. That is because they say, 'We have no obligation towards the goyim; -and this, which they say is from God, is a lie, and they know it. Indeed -and as for whoever keeps his promise and fears God, then surely God loves those who are fearful. 

As for those who exchange their covenant with God and the promises they have made for a small gain -surely they will have no share of good in the next world, and God will not speak to them and He will not look at them on the Day of Standing, and He will not purify them -and theirs will be a painful punishment. And surely there is certainly a group of them who distort what is in the Book with what they say, so as to make you think that it is from the Book when it is not from the Book -and they say, This is from God, when it is not from God - and this, which they say is from God, is a lie, and they know it. 

It is not possible for any man to whom God has given the Book and wisdom and prophethood to then say to people, 'Worship me instead of God,' but only, 'Worship your Lord -by your spreading knowledge of the Book, and by your studying it; And he did not command you to take thangels and the Prophets as your lords -would he command you to disbelief after you had become Muslims? 

And
When God made His covenant with the Prophets, (He said), 'This is what I have given you as a Book and wisdom, and then a Messenger (Muhammad) will come to you confirming what you have -and you will believe in him and you will help him. 
He said, 'Will you be bound by this and will you accept this obligation?' 
They replied, 'We will be bound by it.'
He said, 'Then bear witness to it -and I will bear witness with you and as for whoever turns away after this, then they will be the ones who disobey, Do they desire other than the life-transaction of God, when whatever is in the heavens or the earth submits to Him, willingly or unwillingly, and to Him they will return? 

Say: 'We believe in God, and in what has been revealed to us, and in what was revealed to Abraham and to Ishmael and to Isaac and to Jacob and to the tribes (of Israel), and in what was given to Moses and Jesus and the Prophets from their Lord -we make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted. 

And as for whoever desires a life-transaction other than Islam, it will not be accepted from him, and in the next life he will be among the losers. (Qur'an 3: 64-85).

The Qur'an also confirms that even though some of the People of the Book know that their teachings have been altered and that the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad are pure, they still nevertheless prefer the falsehood to the truth: 

And
When God made a covenant with those who were given the Book to, 'Make it clear to people, and do not conceal it; but they hid it behind their backs and exchanged it for something of little value -and what they have in exchange is awful. Do not think that those who exult in what they have given and who love to be praised for what they have not done -do not think that they are safe from punishment -and theirs will be a painful punishment. And the dominion of the heavens and the earth belongs to God -and God has power over everything. (Qur'an 3: 187-189). 

And: 
Do you not see that those who have been given part of the Book have exchanged it for going astray, and that they want you also to go astray from the way? And God knows best who your enemies are -and God is enough as a Guardian, and God is enough as a Helper. (Qur'an 4: 44-45). 

And: 
Those who have been given the Book recognize this (Qur'an) just as they recognize their own sons -but they deceive themselves and so they will not believe. (Qur'an 6: 20). 
Say: 'O People of the Book, why do you reject the signs of God when (you know that) God is witnessing what you are doing?' 

Say: 'O you who believe, if you were to obey a group of those who were given the Book, they would make you become disbelievers again after your belief; And how can you disbelieve, when the signs of God are recited to you and His Messenger is among you? And whoever holds on firmly to God will indeed be guided on a straight path. O you who believe, fear God with the fear which is due to Him, and do not die except as Muslims. (Qur'an 3: 98-102).

God tells the followers of the Prophet Muhammad what to say to those of the People of the Book who oppose the Muslims: 

Say: 'O People of the Book, do you reject us just because we believe in God, and in what has been revealed to us, and in what was revealed in the past, and because most of you are evil livers?' 


Say: 'Shall I tell you what is worse than that as far as retribution from God is concerned? It is for whomever God has cursed and is angry with -and whomever of these He has turned into apes and pigs -and whoever worships false gods. These are in a worse situation and are further astray from the right way; And when they come to you, they say, 'We believe -when in fact they came in not believing and they certainly left the same way -and God knows best what they were concealing. And you see many of them competing with each other in wickedness and enmity and devouring what is forbidden -what they are doing is certainly awful. Why do the rabbis and the priests not forbid their evil words and their devouring what is forbidden? What they are doing is certainly awful. (Qur'an5:59-63). 

And 
The Jews say, 'Ezra is the Son of God, and the Christians say, The Messiah is the son of God, These are the words that they utter, which are like the words of those who disbelieved in the past- God curse them -what liars they are! They have taken their rabbis and their monks as their lords instead of God -and the Messiah son of Mary -and they were commanded only to worship One God. There is no god except Him. Glory be to Him, above what they associate with Him. They want to put out the Light of God with their mouths, but God seeks only to perfect His Light, however much those who reject may detest it. He is the One who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the true life-transaction so that it may overcome all other religions, however much those who worship idols may detest it.

Oh you who believe, surely many of the rabbis and the monks certainly devour the wealth of people through deception and lead them away from the way of God. And as for those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of God, tell them of a painful punishment -on a Day when it will be heated up in the Fire of Hell, and then their foreheads and their sides and their backs will be branded with it, (and they will be told), This is what you used to hoard up for yourselves -so have a taste of what you used to hoard!' (Qur'an 9: 30-35). 

Fortunately not all of the People of the Book oppose the Muslims with the same degree of intensity: 

You will certainly find that the most implacable of people in their enmity towards those who believe are the Jews and those who worship idols, and you will certainly find that the nearest in their affection towards those who believe are those who say, 'Surely we are Christians. That is because there are priests and monks among them, and because they are not proud. And when they listen to what has been revealed to the Messenger, you see their eyes fill with tears as they recognize the truth. They say, 'Our Lord, we believe - so record us as being among those who bear witness. And how can we not believe in God and in what has come to us of the truth -and (how can we not) hope that our Lord will lead us in (to the Garden) with the people who are righteous?' And God has rewarded them for what they say, with Gardens underneath which rivers flow, in which they shall dwell for ever -and that is the reward for those who do good. And as for those who disbelieve and deny Our signs -these are the people of Hell. (Qur'an 5: 82-86), 

It is clear from the Qur'an, however, that wherever their sympathies may lie, those Christians who refuse to accept Islam are more closely allied with the Jews than with the Muslims, and God warns the Muslims not to take them as their friends: 

And
The Jews will not be pleased with you, and neither will the Christians, until you follow their system. Say: 'Surely the guidance of God is the only guidance.' And if you were to follow their desires, after the knowledge which has come to you, you would not have in God any friend or helper. Those to whom We have given the Book and who read it as it should be read, these believe in it -and as for however rejects it, then these are the losers. (Qur'an 2: 120-121). 

And: 
O you who believe, do not take the Jews and the Christians as friends -they are friends to one another -and whoever of you makes friends with them is surely one of them. Surely God does not guide people who are wrong doers. And you see those in whose hearts there is a sickness going nastily over to them, saying, 'We are afraid that we are going to suffer a change of fortune; And it may be that God will grant (you) victory, or a decree directly from Him, so that they may feel remorse about what they secretly kept to themselves. And then those who believe will say 'Are these the ones who swore by God their most binding oaths that they were surely with you?' -Their actions have proved fruitless, and they have become losers. (Qur'an 5: 51-53). 

And: 
O you who believe, do not make friends with those from among those who were given the Book before you, and from among the disbelievers, who treat your way of life as a joke and a game. And fear God, if you are indeed believers. And when you call (them) to the prayer, they treat it as a joke and a game - that is because they are a people who have no intellect. (Qur'an 5: 57-58). 

And: 
O you who believe, do not make close friends with those who are not like you - who will not stop trying to corrupt you and who would love to destroy you. Their hatred is indeed apparent from what they say, but what their hearts conceal is worse -We have indeed made the signs clear to you, if you have any intellect. Although you are the ones who love them, they do not love you -and you believe in all of the Book. And when they meet you, they say, "We believe; -but when they are alone, they bite their finger-tips in their rage at you. 
Say: 'May you die with rage!'  

Surely God knows what is hidden in your hearts. If good comes to you it grieves them, and if bad strikes you it makes them glad, but if you are patient and fear God, then their cunning will not harm you at all -surely God encompasses whatever they are doing. (Qur'an 3: 118-120), 

God tells the followers of the Prophet Muhammad how to treat those from among the People of the Book who are openly opposed to the Muslims:

Fight those from among those who have been given the Book who do not believe in God or in the Last Day, and who do not forbid what God and His Messenger have forbidden, and who do not follow the true life-transaction -until they pay the jizya of their own accord, after they have been subdued. -(Qur'an 9: 29). 

In spite of sustained opposition throughout the last fourteen centuries to God, and to the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, and to the Qur'an, the invitation to the People of the Book in every age to obey God and His Messenger has always remained the same: 

O People of the Book, now has Our Messenger indeed come to you, making clear to you much of what you used to hide in the Book, and forgiving much. Now there has indeed come to you from God a Light and a clear Book, whereby God guides whoever seeks His pleasure to paths of peace - and He brings them out of darkness into light by His decree, and guides them to a straight path. (Qur'an 5: 15-16). 

And: 
O People of the Book, now has Our Messenger indeed come to you to make things clear to you after an interval between Messengers, lest you should say, 'Neither a bringer of good news nor a Warner ever came to us; And now a bringer of good news and a Warner has indeed come to you - and God has power over everything. (Qur'an 5: 19). 

God also says in the Qur'an: 
In the Name of God the Merciful the Compassionate Those who disbelieve from among the People of the Book and those who worship idols could not have ceased (doing so) until clear proof came to them: A Messenger from God, reciting from a Book free from impurity containing true revelations. 

And the People who were given the Book did not become divided until after clear proof came to them, and they were not commanded (to do) anything other than to worship God, sincere to Him in their life-transaction - naturally pure -and to establish the prayer and to pay the zakat -and that is the true life-transaction. Surely those who disbelieve from among the People of the Book and those who worship idols will abide in the Fire of Hell for ever. They are the worst of created beings. Surely those who trust and do good are the best of created beings. Their reward is with their Lord -Gardens of Eden underneath which rivers flow, in which they will dwell for ever. God is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him. -This is for whoever fears his Lord. (Qur'an 98: 1-8). 

And: 
Whoever purifies his self, and remembers the Name of his Lord, and does the prayer, is indeed successful -but you prefer the life of this world, even though the next life is better and more lasting! Surely this is certainly in the earlier Books, the Books of Abraham and Moses. (Qur'an 87: 11-19). 

Again, in Surat al-Mai'dah, God reminds the People of the Book of the reward that awaits those who follow the Prophet Muhammad -the same reward which awaits whoever has truly followed not only Moses and Jesus, but indeed all of the Prophets and Messengers who came before and after them, may the blessings and peace of God be on all of them: 

And if only the People of the Book would trust and fear God, We would certainly remit their sins for them, and We would certainly bring them into Gardens of Delight. And if they had only followed the Torah and the Ingil and what was revealed to them from their Lord, they would certainly have been nourished from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them there is a community who are on the right path -but what many of them do is evil. (Qur'an 5: 65-66). 

Say:
'O People of the Book, you will not have anything until you follow the Torah and the Injil and what has been revealed to you from your Lord; And what has been revealed to you from your Lord is certain to increase the disobedience and disbelief of many of them - but do not feel sorry for people who are disbelievers. (Qur'an 5: 68). 

Say:
'O People of the Book, do not emphasize anything other than the truth in your religion, and do not follow the desires of people who certainly went astray in the past, and who led many astray, and who went astray from the right way. (Qur'an 5: 77). 

When describing those who believe in the signs of God- including the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace - God refers to: '

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Ingil which are with them - he will enjoin what is right on them and forbid them what is wrong, and he will make the good things lawful for them and prohibit them the foul things, and he will relieve them of their burden and the chains they used to wear. So those who believe in him, and honour him, and help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him -they are the successful ones. 

Say:
'O mankind, surely I am the Messenger of God -the One to Whom the dominion of the heavens and the earth belongs -to all of you. There is no god except Him - He gives life and He gives death -so believe in God and His Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in God and His words -and follow him so that you may be rightly guided. (Qur'an 7: 157-158). 

And: 
Certainly there is a good example in the Messenger of God for you - for whoever regards God and the Last Day with hope and remembers God a great deal. (Qur 'an, 33: 21). 

And: 
Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of God, and the Seal of the Prophets -and God is always aware of everything. O you who believe, remember God with a great deal of remembrance, and glorify Him in the early morning and in the evening. He is the One who blesses you -and His angels - so that He may bring you out of darkness into light; and He is always Compassionate with the believers. Their greeting on the Day that they meet Him will be, 'Peace'; and He has prepared a generous reward for them. (Qur'an 33: 40-44). 

And: 
O you who believe, bow down, and prostrate, and worship your Lord, and do good, so that you may be successful - and strive for God with the striving which is due to Him. He has chosen you and He has not imposed anything difficult on you in the life-transaction - the way of your forefather Abraham. He has described you as Muslims, both in the past and in this (Qur 'an), so that the Messenger (Muhammad) may be a witness for you, and so that you may be witnesses for mankind; so establish the prayer and pay the zakat and hold firmly to God - He is your Protector, a blessed Protector and a blessed Helper. (Qur'an 22: 77-78). 

And: 
And as for whoever obeys God and the Messenger, they are with those whom God has blessed- the Prophets, and those who speak the truth, and the martyrs, and the righteous- and they are the best company! (Qur'an 4: 69). 

And: 
He has commanded you to follow the same life-transaction that He decreed for Noah, and which We have revealed to you (O Muhammad), and which We decreed for Abraham, and for Moses, and for Jesus, saying, 'Establish the life-transaction and do not become divided in it. What you are calling the idol worshippers to follow is dreadful for them, but God chooses whomever He wishes for Himself, and He guides whoever turns to Him to Himself. And they did not become divided until after knowledge had come to them, out of rivalry amongst themselves, and if it had not been for a decree for an appointed term which had already come from your Lord, judgement concerning them would certainly have been passed - and surely those who have inherited the Book after them are hopelessly in doubt about it (Qur'an 42:13-14). 

And: 
Surely the religion with God is Islam. And those who were given the Book (in the past) did not disagree until after knowledge had come to them, out of rivalry amongst themselves - and as for whoever rejects the signs of God, then surely God is swift at the reckoning. And if they argue with you, then say, 'I have submitted my will to God- together with whoever follows me; And say to those who were given the Book (in the past) and to those who are illiterate, 'Have you accepted Islam?' And if they have accepted Islam then they are indeed Rightly Guided, and if they turn away then it is only up to you to deliver the message - and God is All- Seeing over (His) slaves. As for those who reject the signs of God, and who kill the Prophets without any justification, and who kill those people who demand justice - tell them of a painful punishment. These are the ones whose actions have failed both in this world and in the next world - and they will not have any helpers. Have you not seen how those who have been given part of the Book invoke the Book of God to reach a judgement between them -and then a group of them turn away in disagreement? That is because they say, 'The Fire will not touch us except for a certain number of days, -and so what they used to make up in their religion has deceived them. 

How will it be when We have gathered them all together on a Day about which there is no doubt, when every self will be paid in full for what it has earned -and they will not be wronged? (Qur'an 3: 19-25), 

And: 
And the different groups among them disagree with each other -so woe to those who disbelieve in the meeting on a mighty Day: listen to them, and look, on the Day they meet Us! -and today the wrong doers are clearly astray, so warn them about the Day of regret when the matter will be judged, for now they are careless and they do not believe. Surely it is We Who will inherit the earth and whatever is in it - and it is to Us they will return. (Qur'an 19: 3740). 

And: 
And what will tell you what the Day of Judgement is? Again, what will tell you what the Day of Judgement is? A Day on which no one has any power over any one else at all - on that Day the affair will belong entirely to God. (Qur'an 82: 17-19). 

Say:
'O God, the King Who has the dominion, You give power to whomever You wish and You take away power from whomever You wish; and You exalt whomever You wish and You humiliate whomever You wish -good is in Your hand -surely You have power over everything. 'You make the night turn into the day and You make the day turn into the night; and You bring out the living from the dead and You bring out the dead from the living - and You provide for whomever You wish without calculating. (Qur'an 3: 26-27). 

And: 
In the Name of God the Merciful the Compassionate, Say: 'He is God the One - God the Everlasting - no one is born from Him and He is not born from anything - and there is nothing like Him. (Qur'an 112: 1-4). 

And: 
In the Name of God the Merciful the Compassionate Praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds, the Merciful the Compassionate, King of the Day of the Life-Transaction. Only You we worship and only You we ask for help. Lead us on the Straight Path, The path of those whom You have blessed, Not of those with whom You are angry, and not of those who are astray. (Qur'an 1: 1-7) 

And when Allah says, 'O Jesus son of Mary, did you say to people, "Take me and my mother as two gods instead of Allah.'?' he will reply, 'Glory be to You - it was not for me to say what I had no right to say! If I ever said that, then You would certainly know it You know what is in me, and I do not know what is in You - surely it is only You Who knows what is hidden. I only told them what You commanded me - to, "Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord," and while I dwelt among them I was a watcher over them, and when You took me up, then You were a Watcher over them -and You watch over everything. (Qur'an- 5: 116-117) 

The End.
Not Yet Revised.

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al-Quran.
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