Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Khalid ibn al-Walid: Did he Murdered Nuwayra Only to Take his Beautiful Wife?

Malik bin Nuwayra was a chief of some distinction; noted for his generosity, a warrior and a famous poet. Bravery, generosity and poetry were the most admired three qualities among the Arabs. Malik was appointed as a zakah collector from his tribe by Prophet Muhammad.

Kalid ibn al-Walid
After the death of the Prophet, when many tribes of Arabia open revolt against Medina, Caliph Abu Bakr declared war against them, which was known as Ridda Wars. Caliph made Muslim army into groups and sent them throughout Arabia, thus a group of 4000 Mujahid under Khalid ibn al-Walid moved to Najd. 

And when they reached Najd, tribal desertion Muslims group joined with them.It is said that Malik broke in open revolt against Medina, as soon as he heard the prophet's death. Moreover, he signed a pact with the self-proclaimed prophetess Sajah bint al-Harith that agrees- first they would deal with local enemy tribes together, and then they would confront the state of Medina. Malik refused to submit Zakat to Caliph Abu Bakr. And gave back all the collected Zakah to the respective Zakah payer of his tribesmen.

When Malik heard about Khalid's movements, he ordered his tribesmen not to engage in battle with the approaching Muslims but to stay at home with a hope of peace. He himself apparently moved away across the desert with his family. Also, to prove his loyal to the state of Medina, he recollected the tax and sent that to Medina. But the riders, those sent by Malik were stopped by Khalid's army at the town of Buttah. Khalid asked them about the signing of the pact with Sajah. 

They answered that treaty was only to exact revenge on their enemies. But, when Khalid reached Najd, he found no opposing army, so he sent his cavalry to nearby villages and ordered them to call the Azan to each party they meet. In November 632 CE, Zirrar bin Auzwar, a group leader, arrested Malik's family as they did not answer the call.

When Malik brought to Khalid, he was questioned. Malik's response was "your master said this, your master said that" referring to Abu Bakr. Khalid's interpreted his response that as he and his followers were Muslims, they did not wish to pay Zakah to Abu Bakr which clearly an Apostasy. Now his only goal to save his own life by any means at his disposal.

Apparently, Khalid was in a war with the Apostasy. So, when he got evidence that Malik distributed collected Zakah on hearing the news of prophets death, and of his pact with Sajah, he confidently declared Malik an Apostate and ordered his execution. After the execution, in the same night he married Layla, the wife of Malik ibn Nuwayra, who was said to be one of the most beautiful women in Arabia at that time.-[al-Tabari: Vol. 2, p- 5]

al-Minhal al-Tamimi: Amongst Malik’s bin Nuwayrah’s relatives. He [Lahu Idraak] converted (during Prophet’s time), al-Zubair bin Bakr mentioned him in al-Muwafaqyat (book)…He said: ‘al-Minhal passed by Malik bin Nuwayrah’s body when Khalid killed him, then he brought a cloth from his bag and shrouded his dead body and then buried him.’-[al Isaba, Vol. 6, p. 249]

Malik's death penalty and marrying his wife Layla without fulfilling Sharia Law created a controversy. It should be noted that, according to Islamic Sharia, one permitted to marry a widow only after her Iddah and it was 4 months 10 days for Layla.

Apparently, it seems to everyone that Khalid killed Malik to take his beautiful wife. 

Thus, some officers of khalid's army—including a prominent companion of Prophet Muhammad, Abu Qatada al-Ansari, confused. It is written in Kanz ul Ummal- ibn Abi Aun and others narrated that Khalid bin al-Walid claimed that Malik bin Nuwayra had become a Murtad according to the information he had received. Malik denied this and said: ‘I am a Muslim, I never changed.’

Abu Qutada and Abdullah ibn Omar testified that (Malik is Muslim) but Khalid ordered Dharar bin al-Auzwar to behead him. Then Khalid took his wife. -[Mullah Muttaqi Hindi (d. 975 H), Kanz ul Ummal. Vol- 5, p- 619, No. 1409:I]

And it is written in Sunan al-Bayhaqi that this Dharar bin al-Auzwar was a rapist, He raped a captured woman when he served under Khalid- Narrated by Abu al-Hussain bin al-Fadhl al-Qatan that is said to be came through a chain from Harun bin al-Asam: Omar bin al-Khattab sent Khalid bin al-Walid in an army, hence Khalid sent Dharar bin al-Auzwar in a squadron and they invaded a district belonging to the tribe of Banu Asad. 

They then captured a pretty bride, Dharar liked her hence he asked his companions to grant her to him and they did so. He then had sexual intercourse with her, when he completed his mission he felt guilty, and went to Khalid and told him about what he did. Khalid said: ‘I permit you and made it lawful to you.’

He said: ‘No, not until you write a message to Omar’. 

Then they sent a message to Omar, and Omar answered that he (Dharar) should be stoned. By the time Omar’s message was delivered, Dharar was dead. Khalid said: ‘Allah didn’t want to disgrace Dharar’-[Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, p. 365, No. 18685]

And in al-Musanaf,- Narrated by Abdul Razaq that is said to be came through a chain from Aba Qutada: During Ridda, we marched to Ahl al-Bya't and reached there at sunset, then we raised our spears, hence they asked: ‘Who are you?’

And when it was morning Khalid ordered their beheading. Then I said: ‘Oh Khalid! Fear Allah, this is not allowed for you.’

Then Abu Qutada swore by Allah never to march with Khalid for any war, and he said: ‘The desert Arabs encouraged him (Khalid) on killing them for the sake of booties and that was Malik bin Nuwayra’s case.’ -[al-Musanaf, Vol. 10, p. 174, No. 18721]

Abu Qutada then back to Medina, as he failed to justify the execution of Malik and  for his oath. As he was among them who believe Malik was a Muslim. It may be because he may know such an event as described in al-Fadael, we find-

al-Bara bin Azeb said: When we were sitting with Rasulullah, a delegation from Bani Tammim came to Him. Malik bin Nuwayra said: "Oh Allah’s Messenger, teach me faith".

The Prophet said: ‘To testify that there is no god but Allah, and I’m His messenger, pray salah, fast during Ramzan, pay Zakah, perform pilgrimage, and follow my Wasi after me," and he pointed to Ali. "And don’t shed blood, don’t steal, don’t betray, don’t eat orphan’s money, don’t drink alcohol and follow my laws, permit what is lawful and forbid what is unlawful, give the rights from your own self to the poor and strong, to the old and young." Till (the prophet) mentioned to him the Islamic laws.

He said: ‘Oh Rasulullah, I’m a man who quickly forgets, please repeat those again’. Then the Prophet repeated.
He said: ‘By the God of the house, I learnt faith.’ He then left pulling his cloth. When he was not went far away, the Prophet said: ‘Who ever wants to see a man of heaven, he should look at this man.’

Abu Bakr and Omar said: ‘Oh Allah’s messenger, who are you referring to?’

He looked downwards and they (Abu Bakr and Omar) followed him (Malik) and said to him: ‘Good news from Allah and His messenger to you to have been promised Paradise.’

He replied: ‘May Allah bless you if you are testifying by what I testify, because you learnt what Prophet Muhammad taught me. But if you don’t, then may Allah not bless you.’ and then he said: ‘What do you want?’ 
They said: ‘You are from the people of Paradise, so ask forgiveness for us’.

He said: ‘May Allah never forgive you, you leave the Messenger of Allah who owns intercession and ask me for forgiveness!’
Abu Bakr said: ‘Don’t say that, I’m the father of Ayesha, the wife of the prophet.’

Then they returned back and signs of sadness appeared on their faces, when Allah’s Messenger saw them, He smiled and said: ‘Is their sadness because of truth?’

When Allah’s Messenger died and Bani Tamim tribe came to Medina with Malik bin Nuwayra And he went to see as to who became the successor after the Prophet, he entered the mosque on Friday and Abu Bakr was giving an address on the pulpit. 
Malik looked at him and said: ‘O brother of Tamim’.
Abu Bakr said: ‘Yes’. 

Malik said: ‘Where is the Wasi of Allah’s messenger, who ordered I was ordered to follow?’
They (people) said: ‘Oh you desert Arab, things have changed.’

Then he got closer to Abu Bakr and said: ‘Who allowed you to climb onto the pulpit while the Wasi of Allah’s Messenger is here?’
He (Khalid) replied: ‘Stay (back); this is not your business.’
Abu Bakr said: ‘Throw out this desert Arabian who urinates on his heels from Allah’s Messenger mosque.’ 

Qunfud and Khalid bin al-Walid went to him and kept pushing him until they removed him from the mosque. Malik said: ‘By Allah, nothing has changed, but you betrayed Allah and His messenger.’
Then Malik rode on his camel and said: ‘We obeyed Allah’s messenger as long he was amongst us, Oh people, what I have to do with Abu Bakr….’ -[Ibn Shazan, al-Fadael, p. 75].

This is the cause of Malik's refusal to submit Zakah to Caliph Abu Bakr. Is not he said when he gave back all the collected Zakah to the respective payer of his tribesmen, "I will only pay taxes to the man chosen at Ghadeer" (Ali ibn Abi Talib). And this is recorded in al-Estighatha as- 

Maliks tribe do not want to submit Zakah to Caliph Abu Bakr because they believed that they were supposed to submit it to Ali bin Abi Talib. -[Abu al-Qasim al-Kufi (d. 352 H), al-Estighatha,Vol 1, p. 7]. 

And may be Abu Qatadah al-Ansari know such truth which made him confused, So, after returning, he told Abu Bakr that he would not serve a general who is the murderer of a Muslim.

Omar ibn khattab, Khalid's cousin and one of Caliph Abu Bakr's main advisors—also believe that Khalid had killed Malik, who was a Muslim, only to get his beautiful wife. He demanded from Caliph the immediate dismissal of Khalid, and put him on trial for the twin crimes of Murder and Adultery. And after the pressure exerted by Omar— Abu Bakr called Khalid back to Medina to explain himself.

When Khalid arrived in Medina, ‘Omar told him: “You enemy of Allâh! You killed a Muslim and thereafter took his wife. By Allâh, I will stone you.' -according to Islamic law, Khalid had to be stoned to death for the said crime,

This condemnation of Omar against Khalid recorded in Tarikh ibn Asakir. Narrated by Abu Ghalib al-Bana and Abu Abdullah al-Bana that is said to be came through a chain from Mus’ab bin Abdullah as-

"….Omar said: ‘I admonished Khalid for breaking the orders and for what he did with the money.' Khalid would distribute the booty amongst the soldiers without informing Abu Bakr. He made decisions that contravened those of Abu Bakr, he killed Malik bin Nuwayra and married his wife. He made peace with the people of Yamama and married the daughter of Maj’a bin Marara. These were met with disapproval by Abu Bakr and he issued Diyat (blood money) to Mutammim bin Nuwayra and ordered Khalid to divorce Malik’s wife….’ -[Tarikh ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 274]

(Omar) said to Abu Bakr: ‘He (Khalid) has performed adultery, you have to stone him’.
Abu Bakr said: ‘I can’t stone him; he interpreted hence made a mistake’.
(Omar) said: ‘Then dismiss him’.
He (Abu Bakr) said: ‘I cannot put the sword back in the sheath which Allah has pulled out on my opponents.’-[Ibn Sa’ad].

Abu Bakr said: ‘Can it be more than Khalid interpreted and made a mistake?" 
Then Abu Bakr sent Khalid back and paid Blood Money for Malik bin Nuwayra and returned the booty. -[Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 254].

Caliph Abu Bakr asked Khalid to explain the matter. After due consideration, the Caliph concluded that Khalid was not guilty for ordering to execute Malik, since there was always some possibility of a mistakes to decide a man is a Muslim or Apostate, and for the case of marrying Layla, as it was not fulfilling that law prescribed, he, however, upbraid his general and thus leaving him open to criticism. And, the Caliph ordered to pay Blood-Money to the heirs of Malik.

Ali bin Muhammad –Abi Daeb – al-Zuhari – Salim – his father that he said: Abu Qutada came to Abu Bakr and informed him of the murder of Malik and his companions, hence he (Abu Bakr) became extremely aggrieved. Abu Bakr then wrote (a message) to Khalid, and he (Khalid) came to him. 

Narrated by Abu Bakr al-Ansari that is said to be came through a chain from Hanzala bin Ali al-Aslami as-

"…When Khalid arrived at Medina, he entered the Mashjid un Nabi wearing rusty armor and with his sword. There were some arrows in his turban, he passed by Omar but didn’t talk to him, then he came to Abu Bakr, and he heard from him what pleased him, he then left happy. 

Omar therefore knew that Abu Bakr had pleased him, therefore he didn’t talk to him (Khalid). Omar was angry at him (Khalid) because of what he had done, by killing Malik bin Nuwayra and marrying his wife and also for what was in his heart against him (Khalid) about Bani Jadhima case’ -[Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 258]

Its true that Khalid bin al-Walid was a "War Genius" who made it difficult for the Roman to victory over Muslims in the battle of Mu'tah, when he lead 3,000 [three thousands] Muslims against 2,00,000 [two hundred thousands] Romans after the death of 3 prominent Muslim General [Abdullah bin Raoha, Zaid bin al-Harith and Jafar bin Abi Talib, Jafar just came from Abyssinia and participate in the battle]. Thus he achieved a Grandiose Title from the Prophet Muhammad the “Sword of Allah” as recorded in al-Bukhari, Musnad of Ahmad, and in Mustadrak al-Hakim. Yet it should be noted that once he picked his sword in hand against Allah and His Messenger and killed many Muslims. And after converting he killed Muslim too. We read in from al-Bukhari as:

Narrated Salim’s father: The Prophet sent Khalid bin al-Walid to the tribe of Jadhima and Khalid invited them to Islam but they could not express themselves by saying, “Aslamna (i.e. we have embraced Islam),” but they started saying “Saba’na! Saba’na (i.e. we have come out of one religion to another).” 

Khalid kept on killing (some of) them and taking (some of) them as captives and gave every one of us his Captive. When there came the day then Khalid ordered that each man (ie. Muslim soldier) should kill his captive, I said, “By Allah, I will not kill my captive, and none of my companions will kill his captive.” 

When we reached the Prophet, we mentioned to him the whole story. On that, the Prophet raised both his hands and said twice, “O Allah! I am free from what Khalid has done.-[Sahih al-Bukhari, Vol. 5, Book 59, No. 628]

“Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Abdul Baqi from al-Hasan bin Ali from Abu Omar Muhammad bin Abbas from Abdul Wahab bin Abi Haya from Muhammad bin Shuja from Muhammad bin Omar from- Abdullah bin Yazid from Eas bin Salamah narrated from his father that-

Sahih al-Bukhari
When Khalid bin al-Walid came to the Prophet after what he had done to the tribe of Jadhima, Abdur Rahman bin Aouf discredited Khalid on his deed and said: ‘Oh Khalid, you adopted the manner of Jahiliyah and killed them to avenge your uncle al-Fakeh, may Allah curse you.’ Then Omar bin al-Khattab supported him against Khalid. 

Khalid said: ‘I avenged your father.’
Then Abdul Rahman said: ‘O Khalid, shame on you, even if I didn’t kill the killer of my father, would you kill Muslims to take avenge my father?’
(Khalid) said: ‘I had received a message from Allah’s messenger to invade them, therefore I attacked them on the orders of the Prophet’.

Abdul Rahman ibn Auf said: ‘By Allah, you have lied, I killed the killer of my father with my own hands and Uthman bin Affan is witness to that’. Then he looked at Uthman and said to him: ‘I appeal to you by Allah, do you witness that I killed my father’s killer?’
Uthman said: ‘Yes.’ 

Khalid said: ‘Who told you that they were Muslims!’
(Abdul Rahman said): ‘All the soldiers testify that you saw them building mosques and testifying that they were Muslims, and then you struck them with the sword.’ 
Abdul Rahman said: ‘You have attributed a lie to Allah’s messenger.’ 
Then (Khalid) became rude with Abdul Rahman and Allah’s Messenger became angry and turned his face from Khalid because of what he did to Abdul Rahman…” -[Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 234]

The Killing Malik ibn Nuwayra to some Muslim never legitimated on the premises that Sharia Penalty exercised on him as he was a Murtad (apostates). It is because of some Khalid's activity based on his past, present and future. 

Even some accused Caliph Abu Bakr saying, When every thing was under his control, he sent Khalid bin al-Walid and said to him: ‘You heard what Malik said in front of the people, I’m worried that he would cause a crack we won't be able to fix. Kill him.’

When Khalid arrived (to Malik’s land) he (Malik) rode on his horse and he was a knight equal to thousand knights, hence Khalid was scared of him, therefore he (Khalid) gave him oath, and then when (Malik) dropped his weapon, Khalid betrayed him he killed him, placed his head in a cooking pot, and married his wife the same night, raping her like a donkey.’

According to ibn Kathir, Khalid ordered that the head (of Malik) be placed with two stones and inserted into a cooking pot, he then ate from it that night in order to scare the Arabs and others from being apostates -[al-Bidayah wa al-Nihaya, Vol. 6, p. 354]

These words of Mutammim clearly allude to the fact that prior the murder, Khalid and Malik exchanged oaths and that too, in the name of Allah.

Malik's father in law al-Minhal al-Tamimi was present when Khalid murdered Malik as recorded by Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his al-Isaba-

We replied: ‘We are slaves of Allah.’
They said: ‘We are slaves of Allah too.’
Then Khalid arrested them.

Tabarani records this oath in Mu'jam al-Kabir, as- Abu Khalifa al-Fadhl bin Habab narrated from Muhammad bin Salam al-Jumahi from Abu Ubaida, who said: Dharar bin al-Auzwar the one who killed Malik bin Nuwayra, therefore Mutammim bin Nuwayra said a (poem) in that case condemning Khalid ibn al-Walid :… ‘you gave him an oath in the name of Allah and then you killed him? Surely if he (Malik) gave you an oath, he would never betray…’ -[al Tabarani, Mu'jam al-Kabir, Vol. 8 p. 294, Imam Abi Bakr al-Haythami also recorded this tradition]

Now at this point, what we may say to draw a Conclusion?
It is this that, from the above information we find that Khalid bin al-Walid, "the Sword of Allah" killed Nuwayra only to take his Beautiful wife Layla binte al-Minhal and married her without fulfilled the Sharia law. 

Those, are not agreed with this conclusion, but try to refute our presentation on analyzing the information given here, we will not consider them because we know what they may produce. In this case, we will only consider similar authentic information to analyze and only then we can reject the above information as false, otherwise we have to consider it as true, because it came through Muslim sources not from any infidels. And we can only say to them in reply, as that of Tabari said-

"Whatever is to be found in this article as quoted from some past source, which the wise reader finds unacceptable or the hearer deems repugnant for the reason that he does not see any authenticity in it or does not find real meaning in it, let it be known that we are not responsible for it. The one responsible for it would be one of those who transmitted it down to us. We for our part have only reproduced what has been transmitted to us".

Are we Muslim fear to tell the truth? 
"No and surely not. We Muslims are the Religion of Truth, Religion of God. "

The End.
Not Yet Verified

Ibn Shazan, al-Fadael,
Tarikh Ibn Asakir,
Ibn Hajar Asqalani, al-Isaba,
Ibn Kathir, al-Bidayah wa al-Nihaya,
Abu al-Qasim al-Kufi (d. 352 H), al-Estighatha,
Musnad of Ahmad, 
Mustadrak al-Hakim.
al Tabarani, Mu'jam al-Kabir,
Mullah Muttaqi Hindi (d. 975 H),  Kanz ul Ummal.
Ali Razwy, A Restatement of the History of Islam and Muslims,

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