Tuesday, January 03, 2017

Jerusalem: The City al-Quds.

Abu Hena Mostafa Kamal
03 Jan. 2017
Wisdom praises herself,
     and tells of her glory in the midst of her people.
 In the assembly of the Most High, she opens her mouth,
     and in the presence of his hosts she tells of her glory:

 “I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,
     and covered the earth like a mist.
   I dwelt in the highest heavens,
     and my throne was in a pillar of cloud.

   Alone I compassed the vault of heaven
     and traversed the depths of the abyss.
   Over waves of the sea, over all the earth,
     and over every people and nation, I have held sway.

   Among all these I sought a resting place;
     in whose territory should I abide?
   Then the Creator of all things gave me a command,
     and my Creator chose the place for my tent.
   Before the ages, in the beginning, he created me,
      and for all the ages I shall not cease to be.
   In the holy tent, I ministered before him,
      and so I was established in Zion.

   Thus in the beloved city, he gave me a resting place,
      and in Jerusalem was my domain." -[Sirach 24:1-11]

__________Jerusalem is one of the world's oldest city. This city also is known to have existed in 3,000 BCE. It is believed that it was built by the Northwest Semitics. Later Pharaoh Ramses II built several structures there. Because, at that time, it was the capital of the feudal city-states. Thus it had also a barrack of the Egyptian army.

The area of the city is 0.9 square kilometer. It is 2,700 feet above from the surface of the sea and 4,000 feet from the Dead Sea. The city stands on 4 mountains that look like a horse's hoofs of which to the north is open and the east, west and south sides are surrounded by a narrow shaft and is the deep Kidron Valley to the east. From the north-west side, the valley of Hinnom to the west faced to the south and to the east have met the Kidron on the south-east side of the city. And the mountains stand up above on each side of the city, among them is the Mount Olive.

Before further illustration, first, we go through the New Bible Dictionary to know how it defines the Old City Jerusalem: "Jerusalem was in existence in the middle of the second millennium BC, as is shown by the Tell el-Amarna letters. At that time it was under the suzerainty of Egypt and was probably little more than a mountain fortress. Possible Pentateuchal references to it are as Salem (Gn. xiv. 18) and the mountain in the 'land of Moriah' of Gn. xxii. 2. According to very ancient tradition, the latter was the place where later the Temple was built, but there is no possible proof of this. As for Salem, it is perhaps to be identified with Jerusalem, but this is not certain; the Salem of Ps. lxxvi. 2 is certainly Jerusalem. If the Genesis Salem is the same place, then at this period Jerusalem was ruled by a king, Melchizedek, who was also a priest of the Most High God (el 'Elyon).

When the Israelites entered Canaan they found Jerusalem in the hands of an indigenous Semitic tribe, the Jebusites, ruled over by a king named Adoni-Zedek. This ruler formed an alliance of kings against Joshua, who soundly defeated them; but Joshua did not take the city, owing, doubtless, to its natural strength of position. It remained in Jebusite hands, bearing the name Jebus. Comparing Jdg. i. 8 with Jdg. i. 21, it appears that Judah overcame the part of the city outside the fortress walls and that Benjamin occupied this part, living peaceably alongside the Jebusites in the fortress.

This was the situation when David became king. His first capital was Hebron, but he soon saw the value of Jerusalem and set about its capture. This was not only a tactical move but also a diplomatic one, for his use of a city on the Benjamin-Judah border would help to diminish the jealousy between the two tribes. The Jebusites felt confident of their safety behind the fortress walls, but David's men used an unexpected mode of entry and took the citadel by surprise (2 Sa. v. 6-8). In this passage, we meet a third name, 'Zion'. This was probably the name of the hill on which the citadel stood; Vincent, however, thinks the name originally applied rather to the fortress building than to the ground it occupied.

Having taken the city, David improved the fortifications and built himself a palace; he also installed the ark in his new capital. Solomon carried the work of fortification further, but his great achievement was the construction of the Temple.-[
D. F. Payne, The New Bible Dictionary, ad v. "Jerusalem"]

In the time of David in 1000 BCE, Sion or Zion [the word is first found in 2 Samuel 5:7 which dates from c.630–540 BC. It commonly referred to a specific mountain (Mount Zion), on which stood a Jebusite fortress and when David make the city as the capital of his kingdom, it becomes the City of David.] or Jerusalem or Urusalim (ú-ru-sa-lim) or Urušalim (ú-ru-ša-lim). The Sumero-Akkadian name for Jerusalem, uru-Salim, -[Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, (1990) Chapters 1-17, p. 410] is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the God [of] Shalim": Also it is called Beth-Shalem, the house of the God of Shalem. Some say, Shem, the son of Noah, founded the city and named after him, became known as the city of Salem or Salima. And his nick name was Melchizedek [composed with the words Malek and Sadek, which means- "King of Righteousness". He is considered “without a father, without a mother. Which made him without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, thus like the Son of God. He abides a priest perpetually.”- Hebrews 7:3]. He is also identified as Dhul-Qarnayn according to the Qur'anic viewpoint. Prophet Noah blessed him-"G-d beatified Yefeth and will dwell in the house of Shem." -[Genesis 9:27].

Theophilus G. Pinches has noted a reference to "Yabusu", which he interpreted as an old form of Jebus, on a contract tablet that dates from 2200 BCE, -[Pinches, Theophilus G., The Old Testament: In the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia (London: 1908), p. 324] and the Jebus identified with Jerusalem -[Joshua, 15:8, 18:28; Judges, 19:10] According to classical rabbinical literature, the Jebusites derived their name from the city of Jebus, the ancient Jerusalem, which they inhabited. And we know, Abraham purchase the Cave of Machpelah, from the Jebusites,

The Jebusites said to be an Amorite ethnic group known as the Yabusi'um -[Biblical Archaeology Review 32:02, March–April 2006]. Lipinski says, "This implies the existence of a tribe or clan of Yabusi or Jebusites". -[The Semitic letter Y becomes a J in Germanic languages such as English] The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) contains the only surviving ancient text known to use the term Jebusite to describe the pre-Israelite inhabitants of Jerusalem; according to the Table of Nations at Genesis 10, the Jebusites are identified as a Canaanite tribe, which is listed in third place among the Canaanite groups, between the biblical Hittites and the Amorites. Lipinski identified them with the group referred to as Yabusi'um in a cuneiform letter found in the archive of Mari, Syria. -[Lipinski 2004, p. 502.]

Every non-biblical mention of Jerusalem found in the ancient Near East refers to the city as 'Jerusalem'. Yasser Arafat [Stefan Lovgren, "Jerusalem Strife Echoes Ancient History", National Geographic News, 29-10-2004] and Faisal Husseini among others have claimed that they are descended from the Jebusites. Thus, the 1978 al-Mawsu'at al-Filastinniya (Palestinian encyclopedia) asserted, "The Palestinians [are] the descendants of the Jebusites, who are of Arab origin," and described Jerusalem as "an Arab city because its first builders were the Canaanite Jebusites, whose descendants are the Palestinians." -["Palestinians, Jebusites, and Evangelicals," Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2007, vol. 14, pp. 49–56.]

al-Aqsa Mosque
[Reconstructed by the Fatimid Caliph Ali az-Zahir]
Jerusalem is known for al-Aqsa Mosque, the House of God. It was [re]built by Prophet Solomon, son of Prophet David. Muhammad, the seal of the Prophets, in his early Prophethood made Qibla of prayers to this Mosque. But later received divine instruction to make Qibla to the Holy Mosque Masjidul Haram ["We see the turning of thy face to the heavens: now Shall We turn thee to a Qibla that shall please thee. Turn then Thy face in the direction of the Sacred Mosque: Wherever ye are, turn your faces in that direction" -Qur'an 2:144] ie. Ka'ba of Becca [Mecca] built by angels for Adam, the first human on earth and later rebuilt by the Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael. Moreover, in the Mi'raj Night, Angel Gabriel, brought him first from Mecca to this mosque and after the prayer to this House of God, he went for the Miraj. Qur'an says-

"Glory to Allah, Who did take His servant for a journey by night, from the Sacred Mosque to the Farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless - in order that We might show him some of Our signs. For He is the One who hears and knows all things." (Qur'an 17:1).

In 638, just a few years after the death of the Prophet, an army of his followers surrounded Jerusalem. The city Patriarch, Sophronius, handed over the city after a brief siege. There was only one condition; that the terms of their surrender be negotiated directly with 'Omar ibn al-Khattab, the second Caliph of Islam.

'Omar entered Jerusalem on foot. There was no bloodshed. There were no massacres. Those who wanted to leave were allowed to, with all their possessions. Those who wanted to stay were guaranteed protection for their lives, their property, and their places of worship in the Covenant of Omar.

Covenant of Omar
For the first time in its long history, Jerusalem had been spared a bloodbath. it is said that 'Omar accompanied Sophronious to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and that he was offered a place to pray in it. 'Omar declined, fearing it might establish a precedent which would threaten the church's continued use as a Christian house of worship. He prayed instead to the south of the church, now the site of the Mosque of 'Omar in Jerusalem.

'Omar then asked to be taken to the site of al Aqsa Mosque. Accompanied by hundreds of Muslims, he found the area covered in dust and debris and immediately initiated its clearing. A huge timber mosque which held three thousand worshippers was erected on this site in the time of 'Omar, at the southernmost wall of the Noble Sanctuary.

The city then called "Bayt al-Maqdis", a translation of the Hebrew name of the Jerusalem Temple – Beit HaMikdash (Literally “Holy House”). Bayt al-Maqdis is quite long and cumbersome, so as of the 9th century, an abbreviated name "al-Quds" (“The Holy”), began to supersede the older Arabic names of the city.

al-Haram al-Sharif
The wider compound of the al-Aqsa [the furthest] Mosque is usually referred to as "al-Haram ash-Sharif" ("the Noble Sanctuary"). And the place, where Prophet Muhammad kept tied his Borak, the heavenly vehicle before he had traveled for Miraj is the western wall, And there is a small structure adjacent to the Magnificent Dome of the Rock which is called the "Dome of the Chain"

Actually, the holiness of the sanctuary in Jerusalem related to cosmology, eschatology, and legitimization. In Islamic tradition, the Dome of the Rock shall be the center of the 'land of the Gathering and Resurrection [on the Day of Judgment]’  

The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik had built the Dome of the Rock before he died in 705 AD as well as, the Dome of the Chain. And, among the wonders of the Holy House is the Dome of the Chain, to the east of the Rock, where a chain of light was claimed to be suspended between Heaven and Earth. And this Dome was constructed “on the site where David [was said to have] judged the Children of Israel by means of this suspended chain of light. It is said, the chain, which could distinguish those who were speaking the truth in legal disputes from those where were lying [If two men approached it to solve a point of litigation, only the honest and upright man could take hold of it; the unjust man saw it move out of his reach]. It is believed that in the day of Judgment, this chain will stop the sinful and let the just pass through. Muslims also identifies the Dome of the Chain as the place where the Prophet [sic] encountered the maidens of Paradise at the time of his Night Journey.

Thus Muslim sources play a scatological meaning of the various edifices on the area around the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, as well as the surrounding topography; for example, the “Straight Bridge” (Sirat al-Mustaqim) which “is visualized…as leading from the Mount of Olives to the Haram al-Sharif” simultaneously “evokes the ‘Straight Path’ repeatedly mentioned in the Qur’an….” In sum, the Dome of the Rock and Chain, and “the signs of the Hour mapped onto the surrounding complex are only reminders and precursors of their real versions, a preview of things to come.”

So, al-Aqsa is VERY MUCH IMPORTANT TO MUSLIM [because of its SACREDNESS] as it is the 2nd [Ka'ba the 1st one] of the two "Holy House of Worship" [Mosque] on Earth that APPROVED by God as His Abode. 

Thus, "al-Haram ash-Sharif" is valued to Muslims. The city Jerusalem, in addition to al-Haram ash-Sharif, there are some important establishment for Jews and Christians such as the Temple Mount, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Garden Tomb, etc. Thus this Historical City is equally holy to them.

According to the Books of Samuel, the Jebusites still control Jerusalem at the time of Prophet David. When people select David as their king, he is looking for a suitable place for the capital of his kingdom. Finally, he chooses the Jebusites fortress which was at the heart of the western hilly area. It was at that time known as Sion (Zion). However, when the Jebusites came to know that David wished to take the city; they said Confidently, "O, David! You shall not come in here, but the blind and the lame will repel you, "- [See, 2 Samuel 5: 6]

For their arrogant attitude, it needs to take over the city. Yet David could not do so for the same reason as that of Israelis were not able to conquer during Joshua's campaign -[Jewish Encyclopedia]. The Book of Chronicles states that the inhabitants of the city, the Jebus forbade King David to take control their city Salem shortly after he was made the king.

According to Genesis, the ruler of Salem in the time of Abraham was "Melchizedek, the Righteous King", who was a ruler and also a priest. After rescued nephew Prophet Lot [Lot ibn Haran], Abraham on the way to return Hebron met Melchizedek and a covenant made between them. It was a custom to give gifts to the holy one, thus, after the agreement, Abraham promised to give him a tenth of everything he had. At that time Abraham was 75 years and Melchizedek 475 years old. Later, when Sarah died, for her burial Abraham choose the "Cave of Machpelah" and the Jebus happily gave it to him for free but Abraham denied and paid in full to the Jebusite.

However, the covenant that made between the Jebusite king Melchizedek and Abraham, guaranteed the king that Abraham's descendant would not take control of the city ever against their will. The covenant then engraved in bronze. Actually, the Jebus made two bronze statues face to face, one as Melchizedek and another as Abraham and they engraved the covenant on their faces then placed the statues inside the city gate.

When the children of Israel return from Egypt to the "Promised Land" of Canaan, God commanded Moses to wipe out the Canaanites, because they had profaned the sacred ground of various trafficking. The command was-

"Now, therefore, kill every male among the little ones (taph), and kill every woman that hath known a man by lying with him. But all the female children (taph), that have not known a man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves. -[Num. 31:17-18]

This order was a Cruel Punishment for the Canaanites and Greatest Teaching for Israelis,-to learn practically, the Severity of the Crime of Idolatry in the eyes of God Who is said to be the Most Merciful One. Joshua played correctly as God commanded but he did not or it can be said, could not do so against Zion, the fortress of the Jebusites, because of the presence of the bronze statues. The rabbis of the classical era go on to state that King David was prevented from entering the city of Jebus for the same reason, -[Jewish Encyclopedia] And because of the covenant, the Jebusites made such a comment confidently. It is to be noted that, 2 Samuel 5:6; refers to "the blind and the lame"- it was because in the course of time the statues lost one's leg [of Abraham] and others eyes [of Melchizedek].

So, to fulfill his wish, David acted tactfully. He promised the reward of captaincy to anyone who destroyed the bronzes, saying, “Whoever leads the attack on the Jebusites will become commander-in-chief.”-[Jewish Encyclopedia].

According to the version of the story in the Masoretic Text, David managed to capture the city by a surprise attack [in the morning], led by Joab. When the Jebusites found that they lost their covenant which guaranteed them safety, they decided to surrender. Actually, in the night Joab with some of his friend enter into the city through the water supply tunnels. It was a daring attempt for Joab that Jebus never thought of [Jerusalem has no natural water supply except for the Gihon Spring] and he then manages to enter the city and eventually destroyed the bronze statues.

The Books of King's state that once Jerusalem had become conquered, the surviving Jebusites were forced by Joab to leave the city. David then took up residence in the fortress, and so it was called the City of David. He built up the city around it, from the terraces to the surrounding wall, [1 Chronicles 11:6-8]

The "Fountain of the Virgin" is the source of water supply in the city of Jerusalem. It is located in the lower portion in the east of the city. Hezekiah, a religious ruler, after a long period of David, dug up a tunnel from this spring to the "Pool of Siloam", inside the south wall side of the city. This tunnel was 1,758 feet long, 6 feet high, was excavated in a nice way, cutting solid rock. At the end of the tunnel of Siloam and on the rocky wall, the operational details are recorded.

'Excavation work has been completed. The Excavation story was as follows-"…breakthrough and this was the account of the breakthrough. While the laborers were still working with their picks, each toward the other, and while there were still three cubits to be broken through, the voice of each was heard calling to the other, because there was a zdh [crack?] in the rock to the south and to the north. And at the moment of the breakthrough, the laborers struck each toward the other, pick against pick. Then the water flowed from the spring to the pool for 1,200 cubits. And the height of the rock above the heads of the laborers was 100 cubits."

David began to live in Zion, and then he takes initiates to check his military strength. Hence a delegation, led by Joab came back after counting Israelis for a period of nine months and twenty days and informed the king that- "there are 8 lac in Jehuda and 5 lac in Israel, those are able to use a sword." David was self-satisfied on the basis of this military power. But it did not last long, he found Azrael, the angel of death with bare a sword in hand standing on the threshing floor of Ornan. When David asked God the cause of his presence, he was informed that it was for his sin, for the wrongness that he did to the Jebusites, [Jebusite's statement, is that they said David would have to defeat the blind and lame before anyone else. -Peake's Commentary on the Bible was actually their confident, not arrogance], and for his pride of dependency on military power rather than God. And he was given three alternatives choice as the punishment of this sin-

(i) Seven years of famine.
(ii) Up to three months bondage after a defeat to your enemies. Or,
(iii) A three-day plague.

At this time, David found himself in great danger. Finally, he thought, "doubtlessly, under the consequence of God is better than the bondage to any man, because God's mercy is infinite."
He goes with the third.

The plague broke out and people began to die. David then complains to God, "I have sinned, and have done wrong. So punish me and my family. But the Israelis, they are like sheep. What is their offense? "

This time prophet Gad advised David to sacrifice animals at the threshing floor of Ornan where the angel appeared standing with a bare sword.
So David did as Gad says.

As David came to Ornan, Ornan looked and saw David, and went out from the threshing floor. ..Then David said to Ornan, "Give me the site of this threshing floor, that I may build on it an altar to the Lord; for the full price you shall give it to me, that the plague may be restrained from the people."

Ornan said to David, "Take it for yourself; and let my lord the king do what is good in his sight. See, I will give the oxen for burnt offerings and the threshing sledges for wood and the wheat for the grain offering; I will give it all."

But King David said to Ornan, "No, but I will surely buy it for the full price; for I will not take what is yours for the Lord, or offer a burnt offering which costs me nothing." So David gave Ornan 600 shekels of gold by weight for the site. Then David built an altar to the Lord there and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings. And he called to the Lord and He answered him with fire from heaven on the altar of burnt offering.
-[1 Chronicles 21:21-27

At that time, when David saw that Lord had answered him on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite, he offered sacrifice there. -[1
Chronicles 21:28]
However, in the meantime, it already cost seventy thousand [70,000] innocent life.

Later David acquires necessary to land in Zion but nevertheless, he paid in full to the affected Jebusites and he returned rest of their properties to the respective Jebus. Since then the Jebusite began to live together in Zion with Israel. And when David starts to live in the city, eventually, it becomes known as the "City of David". Later David makes it more secure by building walls around the city [it means, the Jebus arrogance not for the city defense system as Jews claims]. But the city still lacking the necessary infrastructure to make it as the main religious center and the capital of his kingdom. So, Solomon pays attention to it at the beginning of his reign.

Jerusalem is referred to Salem rather than Jebus in the passages of Genesis. Rabbi Rashi believed that Melchizedek was another name for Shem, son of Noah, despite Abraham's supposed descent from the line of Shem's son Arphaxad. Later, Joshua is described as defeating a Jebusite king named Adonizedek. The first parts of their names mean king and lord, respectively, but though the Zedek part can be translated as righteous [making the names my king is righteous and my lord is righteous]. However, whether Melchizedek was himself intended in the Genesis account to be understood as a Jebusite, in charge of Jerusalem prior to the Jebusites.

Melchizedek, who was a priest and a king and was likely to have been associated with a sanctuary, probably dedicated to God, and the House of God [al-Aqsa Mosque] that Solomon built, was simply a natural evolution of this sanctuary.

On the threshing floor of Ornan where David built an altar, a Prayer House was built by Solomon. The new structure of the building increased the land area. To build this structure initiates a master plan Skilled architect, builder and necessary wood and much of them were collected from Hiram, king of Tyre. Solomon informed him-

"I want to build a House for my Lord, the Almighty God. He told my father David that- "Thy son, who will sit on your throne, shall build my house."

"So command, so that the cedar from the forests of Lebanon be cut for me. My people will be work with your people, and I will give the right wages to your people that you fixed for them. And you know, there is no one among us like a person skilled for logging as Sidonian."

Hiram answered, "I have sent to you a very efficient and intelligent man named Hiram. His mother from Dan and father is a man of Shore. He is skilled for all kinds of engraving and he also knows the linen thread work. He will work with your craftsmen.

I will fulfill all that you intend in the matter of cedar and cypress timber. My men will bring them down from Lebanon to the sea. Then they will take those by floating to your specific places. You just kindly keep an eye to supply food for the people of my Palace."

The cedar trees after cutting from the Lebanese forest were brought by floating to the sea and then through the mountains way to Jerusalem. The stones, after cutting from the nearby clift, made useful for the construction. Huge people were engaged to do these works. Several Jinns were engaged in the works, they were labor, divers, and architects. They worked according to the king's wishes in a wide variety scale.

All the objects to build were prepared carefully earlier, so for the construction of this vast building, thus nowhere in the house, could not be heard the sound of hammer, batal or any other iron devices. Gold, silver, copper and other metal was used for the construction. It became famous to the world, not for the size but of its grandeur and of the objects used for build it.

After completion and the inauguration of the House of God, Solomon started the construction of his Palace complex. The construction of five building complexes takes a period more than a decade (thirteen years).

The first building on the south constructed on 45 pillars of cedar. The building was 150 feet in length, 75 feet width and 45 feet in height. It was used as arsenal and conference room. Next was 45 feet in width and 75 feet in length one room building. It is used as an alternative to the court room, and for a reception to dignitaries.

The 3rd building was a royal court room. It was a highly decorated and extremely furnished building. The king's throne was in the room. The throne was made of ivory and gold ornate. On both sides of the seat, there were sleeves, and the rear was round; Near the sleeves, there were two standing lion statues. There are six steps leading to the throne and both ends of each step was a standing lion.

Next was the King Solomon's palace. It was a large building. His family members were lived there. The palace was made of crystal and was fantastic with its beauty and grandeur. The Queen of Sheba, Bilquis had her clothes up to her knees thinking water when she was entering the building.

The 5th building was adjacent to Solomon's own Palace. It was also a residential building. Here, his Egyptian wife, the daughter of Pharaoh lived. Pharaoh gave the Gezer city to this daughter as a gift on her marriage. After marriage, Solomon had brought his wife to Zion, the City of David. Later, when the palace complete for residence, she moves here.

Jerusalem [in Arabic Bayt al-Muqaddas] is most commonly known as al-Quds meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy Sanctuary." And this is considered as the Holy City of God. Thus it is said in the book of Jubilee, where Lord said, -"And Zion and Jerusalem [ie. Jerusalem, its origin likely predates the Israelites and may be derived from the Hebrew root ṣiyyôn ("castle") or the ṣiyya ("dry land," Jeremiah 51:43)] shall be holy."-[Jubilees, 1:27].

Before David, the city Jerusalem was known as Zion or Sion, Shalem or Shalim. The Semitic root of the name "is sometimes thought to be "s-l-m" meaning peace, harmony or completeness. A city called "Rušalimum" or"Urušalimum" appears in ancient Egyptian records as one of the first references to. G.Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds.) "Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament", (tr.David E.Green) William B.Eerdmann, Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. VI, p.348 These Egyptian forms are thought to derive from the local name attested in the Amarna letters, e.g: in EA 287 (where it takes several forms) "Urusalim".

The name Shalem may be based on the Semitic root (S-L-M), which derived from Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew word that means 'peace'. So Jerusalem- [Yerushalayim (Hebrew Yireh means an Abiding Place of the Service of God)] means- 'Abode of Peace' or 'Dwelling of Peace'. The form "Yerushalayim" first appears in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of "yerusha" (heritage) of the God of "Shalem". From the ancient to this day the city thus considered as the City al-Quds, the Holy City of God".

The End.
Not Yet Verified.

Q & A.

# Tell us, Why the king need to make a covenant with Abraham for a city that is less than 1.0 sqm?
@ I said, do you read the article carefully? It is clearly shown that the city was the "Foundation of the God [of] Shalim" ie. Beth-Shalem, The king made that covenant, not for the city, but to secure the holiness of the city.

"Bro, what this covenant of Omar reads?"
@ It reads as-
In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.
"This is the assurance of safety which the servant of God, Omar, the Commander of the Faithful, has given to the people of Jerusalem. He has given them an assurance of safety for themselves for their property, their churches, their crosses, the sick and healthy of the city and for all the rituals which belong to their religion. Their churches will not be inhabited by Muslims and will not be destroyed. Neither they, nor the land on which they stand, nor their cross, nor their property will be damaged. They will not be forcibly converted. No Jew will live with them in Jerusalem.

The people of Jerusalem must pay the taxes like the people of other cities and must expel the Byzantines and the robbers. Those of the people of Jerusalem who want to leave with the Byzantines, take their property and abandon their churches and crosses will be safe until they reach their place of refuge. The villagers may remain in the city if they wish but must pay taxes like the citizens. Those who wish may go with the Byzantines and those who wish may return to their families. Nothing is to be taken from them before their harvest is reaped.

If they pay their taxes according to their obligations, then the conditions laid out in this letter are under the covenant of God, are the responsibility of His Prophet, of the caliphs and of the faithful."

# Another asked, "The City Jerusalem, as you depicted is a land that eternally belongs to the Jebus ie. it was never ever included with the "Promised Land". Then, why did Prophet David Tactfully Captured it? And now, why do Muslims take control a part of the city? Do they have any right? And finally, what is the position of Jews, I mean their right to this holy city?" 

@ I said, "You asked a lot of Questions. However, all these can be answered in a few word. It is written in "ALL" the Holy Books as-

The "Righteous" shall inherit the land, -[Zabur (Psalms), 25:13; 37:11; Gospel (Matthew), 5:35; 37:29; Qur'an, 21:105].
Thus according to the Scripture, the city belongs to the Muslims and so they inherited it. 
Do you need explanations?
Ok, then we start from the action of David.

David was a Prophet and absolutely a righteous person, so he thought accordingly as that revealed to him [Zabur (Psalms), 25:13; 37:11], that he had the right to capture the land and he did that. But, without depending on God, he looked for "other ways" which was not acceptable to God. So he was punished.

However, through David, the Jews established their rights in the city. But they polluted "the House of God". As reported by Gospel, Jesus convicted Jews- "It is written in the Scriptures, 'My Temple will be called a house of prayer,' but you [the Jews] have turned it into a den of thieves!" -[Gospel (Matthew), 21:13]
But the Jews do not pay heed to him. Actually, they reject Jesus and plot to kill him. So, he warned them through the following parable-

"There was a landowner who planted a vineyard. He put a wall around it, dug a winepress in it and built a watchtower. Then he leased the vineyard to some farmers and moved to another place. When the harvest time approached, he sent his servants to the tenants to collect his fruit.

“The tenants seized his servants; they beat one, killed another, and stoned a third. Then he sent other servants to them, more than the first time, and the tenants treated them the same way. Last, of all, he sent his son to them. ‘They will respect my son,’ he said. “But when the tenants saw the son, they said to each other, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him and take his inheritance.’ So they took him and threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.

“Therefore, when the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants? Will not he bring those wretches to a wretched end, and will rent the vineyard to other tenants, who will give him his share of the crop at harvest time?”

He concluded, “Therefore I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken away from you and given to a people who will produce its fruits. ...”-[Matthew 21:33-44]

The Jews do not try to understand Jesus. But they killed [as appeared to them] him and still now, we find, they were not ready to accept him. So, it happened what it should to happen. God canceled their lease of the "Vineyard" and leased that to Muslim. In other ways, God taken back the authority of His House from Bani Israel and permanently leased that to Bani Ishmael. 
"So sad."
Not only this, rejecting Jesus the Jews turn themselves as a disbeliever. Qur'an says-

Surely those who believe then disbelieve, again believe and again disbelieve, then increase in disbelief, Allah will not forgive them nor guide them in the (right) path.-(4:137)

"Would you explain this Verse?"
Why not? Here,-
--Surely those who believe- [means]  -Surely the Jews became believer, believe on Moses,
--then disbelieve[means] -Then they became disbeliever worshiping Calf, Opis, 
--again believe[means] -Again they became as believer promising God [showing Him their determination through killing each other, which killed 70 [or 70000 (as no differs in different text) of them] that they will never do that again,
--and again disbelieve then, increase in disbelief[means] -Again they became disbeliever, disbelieve on Jesus, and then increase their disbelief, slandering on Mary,

So, Qur'an says:
Allah will not forgive them nor guide them in the (right) path. -This is the reason which answering the question to us- why they failed to recognize Muhammad, the Messiah to the mankind

"Uh!, then with this, how do you draw a connection to the question asked?"
It is that- "According to the Scriptures, "The unbelievers have NO RIGHT on the House of God."

Now, the wise reader may read the following article to Justify Jewish claim-
5 Facts That Prove Jerusalem Was NEVER A Muslim Holy City.
or, The Muslim Claim to Jerusalem by Daniel Pipes.

Is there any question?
"Yeah, You declared Jews as -unbelievers, which a sober person can't do, or they?"
You are interesting! Yah scholars and educated person shall never do that. It is not that they are sober, it is because they deal only with apparent truth, thus not confident enough to be bold. 
What is what? We are dealing only with TRUTH that must be 100% bias free, 100% authentic ie. absolute truth thus we do not need to keep in mind general norms.

"You are interesting too. You know, Muslims are always declaring that Torah, Gospels are changed, yet loves to cite verses from those book. And what you have done!?! You randomly picked verses, compiled them and placed to us as 100% bias free, 100% authentic. Wow! This is amazing!"
We don't find anything amazing here, sorry. We never pick any verse from anywhere unless that is true both in logically, scriptually or universally. 

"Wise Readers, could any of you tell me what are those universal formula/laws that used here which ensures one that the above description is purely bias free, authentic?"

Jewish Encyclopedia.
al-Mawsu'at al-Filastinniya (Palestinian encyclopedia).
Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, (1990), Chapters 1-17, p. 410.
Biblical Archaeology Review 32:02, March–April 2006.
Lipinski, 2004, p. 502.
Pinches, Theophilus G., The Old Testament: In the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia (London: 1908), p. 324.
Stefan Lovgren, "Jerusalem Strife Echoes Ancient History", National Geographic News, 29-10-2004.
"Palestinians, Jebusites, and Evangelicals," Middle East Quarterly, Summer 2007, vol. 14, pp. 49–56.
Peake's Commentary on the Bible.
Book of Jubilee.
The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh).

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