Monday, December 12, 2011

Musaylima: The Man who Demanded a Partnership of the Prophethood of Muhammad.


Musaylima's full name was Muhammad Hayle Hassan Musaylima bin Thumama bin Kabir bin Habib. He belongs to the tribe Banu Hanifa, a Christian branch of Banu Bakr bin Wali (later known as Rabi'a) and one of the largest tribes of Arabia that inhabited the region of Najd, which had originally migrated from South Arabia and by the yr 503 CE had become the leading tribe of the central Arabian Kinda empire, Banu Bakr lived in al-Yamama, adopting al-Hajr (near present day ar-Riyad) as their "capital."-(Joseph Chelhod, (Paris, 1964), p.14.).

After the death of Hawdha bin 'Ali (d. 630), the chief of Banu Hanifa [Muhammad sent him a letter shortly before the treaty signed with the Quraish at Hudabiyya in June 628, inviting him to accept Islam. Hawdha replied that he would, on condition that Muhammad would name him co-ruler and proposed heir of his prophethood which Muhammad rejected], Musaylima successfully represent himself as a leader of his tribe and gained power to control an extensive area, mainly agricultural land in the eastern part of Yamama that produce huge corps. Later he built a sacred Haram there or enclave after Hijra.

Queen Bilquis
In the south of Yamama it was the historic city of Saba, whose Queen Bilquis went to Jerusalem to meet with Prophet Solomon. This city was the center of studies and practicing magic and sorcery since the days of Moses. Those who were living there were the Magian, -fire worshipers, who had taken light and darkness as a part of their religion. Thus, in the course of time, Jinns, the power of darkness became the part of the worship in their religion. Thus the worshiper became a sorcerer or a fortune teller. The ignorant mass come to them to fulfill their various wishes. It is said in the Qur'an-


And they followed [instead] what the devils had recited during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people magic and that which was revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut. -[2:101].



That is magic imported in Saba and taught them to the wizard and sorcerer by the devil Jinns. And they imported that magic which was revealed to the falling two angels Harut and on Marut in Babylon. That is due to those fallen angels the magic introduce and increases much of the Magic, Witch-crafting, Sorcery in the city of Saba.



And the sorcerer would prophesy which they have from the devil Jinns, which were written in a specific rhythmic style and the consequence of which is that sometimes they would happened sometimes they would not happened ever. And if those prophesy would not happened, the sorcerer blame to the candidate that they may not done the rituals properly. However, their honor in the society would never fall.



When the incomer built their home in the Hejaj as settler, they came in contact with those sorcerer, magician, shamanian. And they began to practice of rituals to acquire the subjective knowledge because of attracting with their status and social position. This was the environment entity of the Hijaj. But suddenly when a Prophet appeared in the Quraish tribe, they set their eyes on it. And observing the devotion and respect of the followers to the Prophet, they wanted to be proud themselves having a prophet among them.



All the small ethnic groups living in the proximity of Hejaj, the clanic honor was seen as an special status. And now these Magicians, Sorcerer take this as the most effective weapon. As a result, at the time of Prophets death, they began to announce receiving Prophet-hood. From almost every tribe so-called prophet started to come one after another.



It is said that Musaylima was a skilled magician,-(ibn Kathir, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad) who dazzled the crowd with miracles. He used his skill to persuade people that he was divinely gifted. Also, as befitted the usual manner in which holy persons, soothsayers and prophets appeared, he was veiled and disguised.



A number of miracles of Musaylima recorded by Sira writers. It is said that he could able to put an egg in a bottle; could able to cut off the feathers of a bird and then stick them on so the bird would fly again; But Tabari given some other picture. According to him, when Musaylima performed for something, invariably that meets with a disaster, wells dry up, date palms wither at his touch and vegetation dies in the fields.-[Tabari, pp.1934-1935]. As-



A woman of the Banu Hanifa came to him [Musaylima] and said: "Our palms are shrivelled and our wells are dry. Invoke God for our water and for our palros, as did Muhammad for the people of Hazman." And Musaylima asked: "O Nahar, what does she say?"



[in order to learn how to perform the blessing]. And he [Nahar] said: "The people of Hazman came to Muhammad and complained of their lack of water and their dry wells and palms...so he prayed for them. -[Tabari, pp.1934]



And interestingly primary source of majority of the Musaylima's miracle stories is Athal al-Hanafï, who was a companion of Thumama bin Uthal- another Hanafi leader and was controlling the northern part of Yamama-[Tabari, p. 1931].



In the 9th Hijri, the prophet sent messenger with his letter to all rulers and leaders inviting them to accept Islam. Thus a letter reached to Musaylima. So.he came to Medina accompanied a group of Banu Hanifa warriors and when the delegation arrived, they met with Muhammad and proposed him to accept Musaylima as a Prophet and to share power over Arabia with him. In reference to the impertinent demands of Musaylima, Muhammad refused to give him “even a splinter of a palm branch” which he held in his hand.



So, the Delegation went back and stayed in Kayyisa's grove, Medina, which was a camp of al-Harith, a man of Ansar and from the aristocratic clan of the Jew Banu Najjar of Medina. Musaylima married Kayyisa bint al-Harith and was her second husband.



In the next morning, the delegation prepared themselves to met Muhammad again. Musaylima remained back with his wife pretending to look after the camels that tied in the camp of al-Harith, saying that, 'Tell him, if he would allow me inherit power after him, I’ll follow him.'



When they reached the Mashjid un Nabbi, the Prophet went out to see them with Thabit bin Qays. He had the same dead date-branch in his hand. The prophet reached before the delegates and they proposed their revised proposal. Then he told them what he had dreamt last night that he had two golden bracelets on, which were bothering him. He was asked to blow them away, which he did and they vanishes. He interpreted them as allusion to two liars- Musaylima and Aswad.



"So," he said, 'He will be destroyed as he return. I wished only to tell you what I have been shown about him. Otherwise, here is Thabit bin Qays who would answer your questions.' He left.



Then the members of the delegation consult themselves and decided to embrace Islam renouncing Christianity. As was his custom, prophet Muhammad presented gifts to the delegates, and when they had received their gifts one of them said, "We left our comrade in the camp as he wished to look after the camels."



Muhammad gave them gifts for him also, and added, "He is not the least among you that he should stay behind to guard the property of his comrades."



On returning to the camp, they handed the gift to Musaylima and told him that though he was not with them yet considered one of them. Then Musaylima embrace Islam. And on their return to Yamama, they converted their tribe to Islam and build a mosque there, started regular prayers.



When Musaylima came to Medina, he was surprised to see the admiration of people towards Muhammad and that influenced him to be a prophet. Before his "pretensions to prophecy, al-Jahiz writes, he travelled to the market towns situated between the Arab lands (Dar al-Arab) and Persia (al-Ajam), learning sorcery, astrology, and tricks of magic, and then returned to his tribe, who are Arabs, and claimed prophecy." Thereafter, some ignorant people had gathered round him. Musaylima made his people believe that he was receiving revelation from God the Merciful through the angel Gabriel. And most interesting case is that he was not denying the prophethood of Muhammad, rather claiming he was destined to share this mission with him.



Musaylima shared verses purporting them to have been revelations from God and told the crowd that Muhammad had shared power with him.-(Ibn Kathir, The Life of the Prophet Muhammad) He even referred to himself as Rahman, -(al-Mubh al-munir wa Tahdhib Tafsir Ibn Kathir,) ie he attributed some divinity to himself. At this point, some of the people who embarrassed Islam, accepted him as a prophet alongside Muhammad.



When his name spreaded as a Prophet all over Yamama, a man of his tribe from the far-side came to test him. The man said: "We are told that you are claiming Prophet-hood like Muhammad?"



He said: "l am a partner with him in the affair," and then he said to the deputation that had been with him, "Did he not say unto you when you mentioned me to him His position is no worse than yours? What can that mean but that he knows that I am a partner with him in the affair?"



The man asked: "Does an angel descend on you?"

He said: "Yes. It's name is Rahman".
The man asked: "Is that angel in light or in darkness?"
 "In darkness" -he replied.
The man said "I testify that you are a liar. However, a liar of the Rabi'a tribe of Yamama is better than a truthful person of the Najjar tribe of the Hijaz"


Gradually, the influence and authority of Musaylima increased with the people of his tribe. Musaylima was held in high esteem: his companions, they used to call him Rahman al-Yamama. In a course of time, the whole tribe aligned themselves with Musaylima. Then one day, in late 10th Hijri, he wrote to Muhammad:



'From Musaylima, Messenger of God, to Muhammad, Messenger of God.



Salutations to you. I have been given a share with you in this matter. Half the earth belongs to us and half to the Quraish. But the Quraish are people who transgress.'



From this letter, it is clear his contrasting attitudes. Musaylima wrote to Muhammad using the title 'Messenger of Allah' and claimed that God bestowed on him partnership in prophethood (fa-inni qad ushriktu fi il-amri ma'aka). 'Half of the earth was given to Quraish and the other half was allotted to us ie. to Banu Hanifa, but Quraish are people who exceed their bounds.'



In Muharram, 11th Hijri, two persons from Yamama sighted in Medina with a letter for the Prophet from Musaylima. One of the secretaries of the Prophet opened the letter and read it over to him. And when the Prophet came to know about the contents of the letter he turned to those, who had brought it and asked them what the two had to say about the affair of Musaylima and they replied that their opinion was the same as of Musaylima. Then the Prophet said: "If you had not been the ambassadors and messengers I would have ordered you to be put to death." he continued, "When you had already embraced Islam and acknowledged my prophethood, why did you follow such a blockhead and give up the sacred religion of Islam?"



Prophet Muḥammad categorically rejected the quest of Musaylima to share his mission or be appointed his successor after death. However, he called his secretary and dictated a brief reply.

'From Muhammad, the Messenger of God, to Musaylima, the arch-liar.


Peace be upon him who follows (God's) guidance. Now then, surely the earth belongs to God, who bequeaths it to whom He will amongst his servants. The ultimate issue is to the God-fearing." -(Al Tabari)



Here, the Prophet addresses Musaylima as 'the liar' asserts that the earth (in its entirety) belongs to God who gives it 'as heritage to whomever he pleases of his servants' -(Bayhaqi, Mausin). From that time Muslim also used to call him 'Musaylima the liar' (al-Kadhab). on the basis of Ibrahim's prayer for 'one' messenger during reconstructing Ka'ba and also on the basis of the Qur'an that already declared Muhammad as the `Seal of the Prophets'.



And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower.

Our Lord! And make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful.
Our Lord! And raise up in their midst "a messenger" from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise. -(2:127-129)


"Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the "Seal of the Prophets": and Allah has full knowledge of all things."-(33-40)



However, the Prophet’s messenger were arrested by Musaylima’s men when they arrived near the sacred haram of Musaylima at Yamama and presented to Musaylima. Musaylima treat them like dogs and put them under the sword violating traditional law.



Then, under the threat of death, Musaylima asked them to confess that he too a Prophet like Muhammad. One of them did so when the pressing sword going much deeper cutting the skin of his neck.Thus he saved his life, but the other refused to confess. At this, Musaylima cut him limb by limb. At the loss of every limb, when asked, the man kept denying him.till his death,



Yet, the Prophet did not take any action against Musaylima perhaps because of the dream he had seen already stated above.



However, Musaylima claimed to be the recipient of divine revelation to heal the sick and work miracles. His Teachings were almost lost. He sought to abolish prayer and freely allow sex and alcohol consumption.-(Ibn Kathir, Sirat Rasul Allah, pg-69), He also decreed that a man was not to have intercourse with any woman so long as he had a son alive.-(Tabari, p. 1917.) Yet he prohibited pigs and wine, taught three daily prayers to the God, facing whatever side, Ramadan fasting at night, but no circumcision.



It was also interesting that Musaylima also took to addressing gatherings as a messenger of Allah just like Muhammad, and would compose verses and offer them, as Qur'anic revelations. Musaylima learned of Quranic verses and techniques through ar-Rajjal bin 'Unfuwa, the renown warrior, who was the Qur'ànic teacher (mu'allim) sent by Muhammad to the Banu Hanifa Or may one of the member of Hanifa delegation to Muhammad who later apostatized-(Baladhuri, p.132,33; Watt, Medina, p.134; Tabari, p.1932,41; and Chronique, pp. 294-97; ad-Diyarbakri, p.175). However, most of his verses extolled the superiority of his tribe, the Banu Hanifa, over the Quraish.



Many of Musaylima's extant revelations are directed exclusively to a settled audience, and none are directed specifically to nomads. Below are several examples of Musaylima's so called revelations, though the context in which he recite those is not known-



Croak, frog, as thou wilt:

Part of thee in the water and part in the mud;
Thou hinderst not the drinker,
Nor dost thou befoul the stream. -(Margoliouth, Origin, p. 488)


Ya  Difdi, ibna at-Difdi

Nuqqi ma Tanuqqin,
A'lak fi-ilma wa-Asfalk fit-tin,
La as-sharib Tam-na'in,
Wa la il-ma Tukad-dirin. -(Tabari, p. 1934).


"The elephant, what is the elephant,

and who shall tell you what is the elephant?
It has a poor tail and a long trunk;
and is a trifling part of the creations of thy God".


"Verily we have given thee the jewels:

take them to thyself and hasten;
yet beware lest thou be too greedy or desire too much".


"By the land covered with grass,

by the mountains covered with whiteness,
by the horses bearing saddles...."


"Happy are those who say their prayers,

who give what is required of their surplus,
who nourish the poor from their sack of provisions". -(Tabari, pp. 295-96)


"By various types of sheep ...

by the black sheep and its white milk,
indeed it is a pure surprise,
and the wine was forbidden
Why don't you wonder about these things"? -(Tabari, p. 1933)


In Yamama, Musaylima succeeded in gaining the support of many tribal groups who came under his control after the death of Hawdha, the former chief of the area in the service of Persia. In the last years before the Prophet's death, he attempted to establish a social order based on an alliance between the people of Yamama and tribal groups which moved to Yamama and settled there.


al-Yamama
The Haram erected by Musaylima, certain places of which inhabited by his allies (Qurd al-Ahalif) were included. According to sources, the Haram was managed in a corrupt way and the Banu Usayyid, who served as its guardians mistreated other groups. When these groups complained, Musaylima did not redress the injustice. Instead, he read to them 'the answer he got from heaven,' meaning a verse from God for his book like Qur'an:'(I swear) by the darkness of the night and by the black wolf, the Usayyid did not violate [the sanctity] of the Haram'. When the Usayyid continued their transgressions, another verse was released: '[I swear] by the dark night and by the softly treading lion, the Usayyid cut neither fresh nor dry.'


The death of the prophet Muhammad raised the hopes of the community of Musaylima. In one of the speeches said to have been delivered in that period and which was directed to the Banu Hanifa, Musaylima stressed the qualities of his people and his land in comparison with Quraish and Mecca:



'What made Quraish more deserving of prophethood than yourselves? They are not greater in number than you; your land is wider than their land. Gabriel descends from heaven like he used to descend to Muhammad.'



Musaylimah claimed that the revelation transmitted to Muhammad had ceased with his death and henceforth it would be transmitted to him alone. The feeling that he was now the sole prophet is expressed in a verse attributed to him:



"O you, woman, take the tambourine and play, and disseminate the virtues of this prophet! Passed away the prophet of Bani Hashim, and rose up the prophet of Bani Ya'rub". -[ibn Kathir, Bidhya, VI, 341].



Musaylima's adherents grew in number and prestige. The situation in Yamama inspired a feeling of security and peace. This feeling was, however, shaken by the unexpected arrival of a former soothsayer, who claimed that she had been granted revelations from heaven. Her name was Sajah bint al-Harith. She was a Christian of the tribe of Tamim but lived among the Christian Arabs of Taghlib.



Accepting Islam or not is ones choice. But after accepting no one permitted to renounce Islam as it is the religion of Truth ie. renouncing Islam is equal to blaming and rejecting truth and that is a crime against humanity, because this act will turning men from truth which causes them looser in the hereafter. A Muslim never let anyone blaming or rejecting truth after accepting it, as it's a grievous crime. This led Abu Bakr to wars- the wars of  apostasy



The wars of apostasy emerged following the death of Muhammad. At that time Sajah bint al-Harith declared herself a prophetess after learning that Musaylima and Tulayha had declared prophethood.-(Brill's first encyclopedia of Islam, 1936, Houtsma, pg-665). She gathered 4,000 people around her to march towards Medina. However, her plan to attack Medina was called off after she came to infom that the army of Khalid bin al-Walid had defeated Tulayha al-Asadi.-(al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, ibn Kathir, pg.36) Thereafter, she sought cooperation with Musaylima to oppose the threat of Khalid.



Musaylima invited her to meet him in order to negotiate a peaceful solution. He recognized Sajah as his partner in prophethood and declared that the land allotted by God to Quraish would be transferred to Sajah and her people. The other half would belong to Musaylima. Moreover, Musaylima granted Sajah the crops Yamama had produced that year and promised her the crops of the next year.-(Tabari, pp. 1919-1920).



A mutual understanding was initially reached with Musaylima. At a pleasant moment, Sajah inquired and wanted to hear some verses that revealed to him. Then he began to utter rhymes in a soft but heart touching voice-



"God has been gracious to the pregnant woman;

He has brought forth from her a living being
that can move from her very midst." -(ibn Ishaq: P 636-37; Tabari: pp. 1737-38).


On hearing the verse from Musaylima she said, "All speech-act that had its origin in the unseen powers, all speech-act- that was not a daily mundane use of words, but had something to do with the unseen powers, such as cursing, blessing, divination, incantation, inspiration, and revelation, had to be couched in this form" -[saj,].



After that Musaylima telling Sajah that God revealed to him that a woman's place in life is on the bed, he recited:



"God created women with a wide-open cleft,

And made men as partners for her;
Then we penetrate the clitoris,
And she bears children for us." (Tabari, pp. 1917-1918).


Sajah recognized Musaylima as a prophet, whereupon he says: "Shall l marry you? Then l can conquer' the Arabs (al- Arab) with your people and mine."

Later, the two married.


Then Sajah returned to Jazira after a few days (3 days in some account). She return because she was not willing to abandon her people.



According to some sources, the forces led by Sajah intended to attack the troops of Abu Bakr under the command of Khalid bin al-Walid who set out to crush the apostasy (Ridda) of the tribes after the Prophet's death. In her forces were warriors from her people and others who joined them. After some skirmishes, she decided to fight Musaylima and conquer Yamama.



Abu Bakr became aware of the rising authority of Musaylima and decided to send Khalid bin al-Walid at the head of the Muslim army to fight Musaylima. After the defeat of Tulayha Khalid receive the order from the Caliph. So he moved his men to Yamama to fight Musaylima and his forces. Later Abu Bakr wrote Khalid, stressing the power of the Banu Hanifa and their courage.On his way to Yamama, Khalid received the letter and informed his army concerning Banu Hanifa.



Musaylima's agents informed him of the march of Khalid. The route from Butah to Yamama came through the Wadi Hanifa, and on the north bank of this wadi, behind Jubaila, lay the plain of Aqraba which marked the outer limit of the fertile region that stretched from Aqraba to Yamama and further south-east. Musaylima had no intention of letting the Muslims play havoc with the towns and villages of his people. Consequently he took his army forward to Jubaila, 25 miles north-west of Yamama, and established his camp near Jubaila, where the plain of Aqraba began. From this location Musaylima could not only defend the fertile plains of Yamama but also threaten Khalid's route of advance, so that should Khalid blunder through the Wadi Hanifa, the Banu Hanifa would fall upon his left flank.



Khalid was still some distance from Yamama when his men brought the information that Musaylima was encamped in the plain of Aqraba, on the north bank of the Wadi Hanifa through which, the road led to Yamama. Not wishing to approach his enemy through the valley, Khalid left the road a few miles west of Aqraba, moved from the south and appeared on the high ground which rose a mile south of the Wadi opposite the town of Jubaila. From this high ground Khalid could see the entire plain of Aqraba, on the forward border of which stretched the camp of the Banu Hanifa. Khalid established his camp on the high ground.



It was a cold winter morning, the two Army posed face to face for the battle. Musaylima gathered a no of 40000 soldiers and he arranged them into a middle with two wings-left and right The left wing was under the command of ar-Rajjal, the renegade, the right under Muhakim bin Tufael, and the centre under his command. A sermon delivered to the soldier by the son of Musaylima that reads something may be as-,



"O, Banu Hanifa! Are you not Warriors? So, its time to prove what you are, Defend yourself, Protect your land. Protect your wealth- your family. Fight them. If you wona see your women, wona live in this land- fight to protect your women your land.



O, Banu Hanifa! If you show your back being a coward- your women will be captured by them. They will molest them on this land that covered your forefathers bones. You will lose your women forever- you will lose you land. Nothing will be left for you and you will be cursed for breaking oath to protect blood. So, fight them, kill them.



O, Banu Hanifa! fight them for the pride and honor of your tribe, Fight for Musaylima -Rahman al-Yamama. fight with courage, fight bravely till death. fight, kill them all." Then they waited for Muslim attack.


Battle of Aqraba.
The number of Muslim Mujahedin were 13000. After fajar Prayer, they prepared themselves for the war. To Muslim it was the war to establish Islam- the religion of truth, the Religion of God; a war against those, who accept Islam and then revile it. Khalid arranged his soldier similar to Musaylima-a middle with two wings on the north side of wadi Hanifa. The left wing commanded by Abu Hudaifa and the left wing by Zaed, elder brother of Omar al khattab. The Middle direcly under the command of Khalid- the General.


The actual valley of Wadi Hanifa marked the battle front. On the northern side the bank rose to about 100 feet, rising gently at places, steeply at others, and precipitously at yet others. On the southern side it rose more gently and continued to rise up to a height of 200 feet, a mile away from the valley where Khalid had pitched his camp. On the north bank also lay the town of Jubaila and on the western edge of the town a gully ran down to the wadi. The Muslim front ran along the southern bank for a length of about 3 miles, on the northern bank stood the apostates.The town and the gulley marked the centre of Musaylima's army. Behind the apostates stretched the plain of Aqraba; and on this plain, about 2 miles from the wadi, stood a vast walled garden known as Abaz. As a result of this battle it was to become known as "The Garden of Death."



In the early morning of winter, 3rd week of December, 632 CE, in the beginning of Shawal, 11 Hijri, the apostates prepared themselves to defeat Muslim. The stood on their position as firm as a rock. Many fell before the onslaught of the Faithful, but there was no break in their front. The apostates fought fanatically, preferring death to giving up an inch of ground; and the Muslims realized with some surprise that they were making no headway. After the Muslims hard slogging to penetrate his wings, Musaylima, realizing that if he remained on the defensive much longer the chances of a Muslim break-through would increase, ordered a general counter-attack all along the front. The apostates moved forward like a vast tidal wave, and the Muslims now found to their horror that they were being pressed back.



The Muslims proceeded to fall back steadily. Then the pace of withdrawal became faster. The apostate assaults became bolder. And the Muslim withdrawal turned into a confused retreat. Some regiments turned and fled, others soon followed their example. The officers were unable to stop the retreat and were swept back with the tide of their men. The Muslim army passed through its camp and stopped at a distance.



As the Muslims left the plain of Aqraba, the apostates followed in hot pursuit. This was not a planned manoeuvre, but an instinctive reaction,they stopped at Muslims camp and began to plunder it. The battle hung in the balance and gave no sign of victory. Or it can be say Muslims were defeated.



Khalid now realized that with their fanatical faith in their false prophet the apostates would not give in. So the only way to minimize causalities is the death of Musaylima that could break the spirit of the apostates. But he was in the safety of the apostate ranks in which he stood surrounded by his faithful followers.



Then, Khalid proposed talks to Musaylima and he agreed.Then when khalid comes closer to him, he stepped forward cautiously and halted just outside duelling distance of Khalid. "If we agree to come to terms, what terms will you accept?" enquired Khalid.



Musaylima cocked his head to one side as if listening to some invisible person who stood beside him and would talk to him. It was in this manner that he 'received revelations'! Seeing him thus reminded Khalid of the words of the Holy Prophet, who had said that Musaylima was never alone, that he always had Satan beside him, that he never disobeyed Satan, and that when worked up he foamed at the mouth. Satan forbade Musaylima to agree to terms, and the he turned his face to Khalid and shook his head.



Khalid already determined to kill Musaylima. The talks were only bait to draw him close enough.He would have to work fast before Musaylima withdrew to the safety of his guards. Khalid asked another question. Again Musaylima turned his head to one side, intently listening to 'the voice.' At that instant Khalid sprang at him.



Khalid was fast. but Musaylimah was faster. In a flash he had turned on his heels and was gone!

Musaylima was safe once again in the arms of his guards. But in that moment of flight something meaningful happened to the spirit of the two armies, depressing one and exalting the other. The flight of their 'prophet' and commander from Khalid was a disgraceful sight in the eyes of the apostates,To exploit the psychological opportunity which now presented itself, Khalid ordered an immediate renewal of the offensive. The spirits of the Muslims rose as they redoubled their efforts. Then the infidel front broke into pieces the commander of his right wing, Muhakim, who came to the rescue of the apostates."Banu Hanifa!" he shouted. "The garden! The garden! Enter the garden and I shall protect your rear."


The bulk of the army broke and fled, scattering in all directions. Only about a fourth of Musaylima's army remained in fighting shape, and this part hastened to the walled garden while Muhakim covered its retreat with a small rear-guard. and fell to the arrow of the Caliph's son, Abdur-Rahman.



A little over 7,000 apostates, Musaylima among them, had taken shelter. The infidels had closed the gate, and as they looked at the high wall that surrounded the vast garden, they felt safe and secure.



The major portion of the Muslim army assembled in the vicinity of the Garden of Death. It was now afternoon, and the Muslims were anxious to get into the garden and finish the job that they had started early that morning, before darkness intervened. But no way could be found into the garden. The wall stretched on all sides as an impenetrable barrier, with the gate securely bolted from within. There was no siege equipment, nor time to spend on a siege.



While Khalid searched his brain for ideas, an old warrior by the name of Baraa bin Malik, who stood in the group that confronted the gate, said to his comrades "Throw me over the wall into the garden." His comrades refused, for Baraa was a distinguished and much-respected Companion, and they hesitated to do something which would certainly result in his death. But Baraa insisted. At last his comrades agreed to his request and lifted him on their shoulders near the gate. He got his hands onto the edge of the wall, swung himself up and jumped into the garden. In a minute or so he had killed two or three infidels who stood between him and the gate, and before others could intercept him, he had loosened the heavy bolt. The gate was flung open and a flood of Muslims roared through it like water thundering through a breach in a dam. The last and most gory place of the Battle of Yamama had begun.



In the clashes with the Banu Hanifa, a division of the army that came from those Medinans who had assisted Muhammad in his emigration from Mecca (the Ansar) attacked Yamama and fought bravely together with the Meccans who had fled with Muhammad (the Muh'jirin). They were summoned to help out in dangerous situations in the bloody battle of 'Aqrab'.



At the outset, the Banu Hanifa succeeded in repulsing the Bedouin attacks. The solution of Khalid was to put the Bedouin fighters of the army behind the lines of the well motivated and steadfast warriors of the Emigrants (Muhajirin) and Helpers (Ansar).



When Khalid's siege was tightened and the eventual defeat of this pretender became evident some of Musaylima's simple-minded follower asked him: "What has happened to the occult help and support which you had promised us?"

Musaylima replied: "There is no news about occult law and help. It was a false promise which I gave you. However, it is incumbent upon you to defend your honour and greatness".However, defence of honour and greatness was of little avail!


This above sayings of Musaylima shows that he was an eloquent speaker and it also shows that he is not at all the speaker of those insipid sentences, which history has attributed to him, as specimens of his contention with the Holy Qur'an.



Musaylima and his 7000 follower killed within the precincts of the garden. And he himself killed by a flying Javelin that hit on his belly and hooked him with the ground. Then when he helplessly trying the Javelin out  to free himself and to relief his pain, Abu Dojana beheaded him with his sword in a single shot. But when he pulled his head up to announce the death of Musaylima, at that very moment a Hanafi sword from the behind passed through his neck and grounded his head beside Musaylima's.



Musaylima killed by a Javlin thrown by Wahshi from a long distance. According to some far-fetched traditions, he was 140 or 150 years old when he died in 11/632.



When it was spread that the Musaylima is dead, the followers of Musaylima lost their concentration, motive and hope. Some turned in suicidal desperation or killed himself. On the other hand, downing all, Muslims Mujaheddin attacked them more vigorously. As a result, the battle collapse in a short time. By the time sun set, a peace and quiet environment had returned to the Haram and its surrounding Garden.



The intense loyalty of Musaylima's followers can be gauged from the various stories that have been passed down. A woman who heard about his death exclaimed, 'Alas, prince of the believers!' (wa Amir al-Muminina). A wounded warrior of the Banu Hanifa, in his agony, asked a Muslim warrior to kill him in order to put him out of his misery. Upon hearing of Musaylima's death, he remarked: 'A prophet whom his people caused to perish' (Nabiyyun dayyaʿahu qawmuhu). By these words, the Muslim Mujahed gave him the "coup de grâce".



The bloody battle place, the Sacred Haram of Musaylima that flooded with blood later called the 'Garden of Death'. In this war, a lot of couragious example of Muslim fighters were found in the various sources. And the followers Musaylima also fought bravely, as a result, Muslims need to pay a lot for their winning. Nearly 1200 Muslims were killed in this war among them were Abu dojana (who at Uhud had shielded the Prophet from the arrows with his body), Abu Hudaifa (Left Wing Commander), Omar's brother Zaid (right Wing commander) and 400 Quranic Hafiz. On the other hand, Banu hanafi killed nearly 21000 in/c Musaylima, of them 7 thousands were killed in the open field of Wadi in Khalid's 1st and second attacks, 7 thousands killed inside the Sacred Haram of Musaylima, and the remaining killed when they refuse to deny the prophethood of Musaylima after his death.



After the death of Musaylima, Khalid sent some small groups of Muslim warriors to the resident of Bani Hanafi those were living scattered in different areas of Najd for their allegiance, calling them back to Islam. And the team went out and asked them their faith. Actually, they asked each of the member of the tribe a question that on whom he believed now, Muhammad or Musaylimah?



Musaylima killed and most of the Banu Hanafi tribes lost their prominent leaders in the battle, but they were hard minded without exception,they did not repent, nor they willing to. Only some of them suggested- "Let there be a prophet from among you and a prophet from among us!"



Why they did so? Is the life was valuless to them? Or they have a deep faith on Musaylima's Prophethood? No, of course not, most of them had no knowledge of Prophethood or a Prophet, but they were fully familiar with the kahins ie Sorcier, which we discussed at the beginning of this article. As a result, they gave their live in ignorance, on their ancient beliefs-



Their [kahins] mantic knowledge is based on ecstatic inspiration...[which] is of satan origin: a Djinnï. The kahins often express themselves in very obscure and ambiguous language. They give. greater emphasis to their utterance by striking oaths, swearing by the earth and sky, sun, moon and stars, light and darkness,evening and morning, plants and animaIs of all kinds....



Krulins play an extremely important part in public as weIl as private life. They are interrogated on aIl important tribal and state occasions...In private life, the kahins especially act as judges in disputes and points of law of aIl kinds. ...Their decision is considered of divine judgement against which there is no appeal. -[SEI, p. 207; G. Ryckmans, pp. 11-12; Blachère, Histoire, pp. 188-195].



It is the sole right for a person to accept Islam or not. For Humans are created freewilled and they have knowledge to distinguish good and evil. So man will decide using his knowledge its the God-given right for him to do so. And no one has the right to take away what God has given to them.



But, Islam is the Religion of God- "the religion of Truth". [from the very first man to Muhammad a long chain with 124000/144000 Prophets that includes Noah, Abraham, Israel, Moses, David, Solomon, Jeremiah, Zachariah, John, Jesus. Adam came to this world with this religion Islam, whereupon it completed through Muhammad] So no one permitted to deny, defy or revile Islam after accepting it. As deny, defy or revile truth is a crime- a crime against Humanity. Because that may lead some ignorant hesitate accepting Islam and keep them out from the religion of God which caused them loser in the hereafter. In Islam, anybody became a Muslim and then committed a crime against humanity is considered much more serious than that of a killing a Human. Muslims are ordered to fight to kill them. viz.-



And if they break their oaths after their agreement and revile your religion, then fight the leaders of disbelief -surely their oaths are nothing -so that they may desist. -(Qur'an 9:12)



Narrated 'Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that I am His Apostle, cannot be shed except in three cases: In Qisas for murder, a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse and the one who reverts from Islam (apostate) and leaves the Muslims."- [Bukhari , Volume 9, Book 83 ,No-17]



According this Islamic Sharia, Caliph Abü Bakr orders his General to kill all dult male members of the tribe, those unwilling to repent. -(Barthold, 502-11). Thus almost the rest of banu Hanifa put to death under the sword. Those were somewhat 7000 in number.



Sajah, or her people not attacked Khalid nor Khalid involved war with them, as the Caliph Abu Bakr not declared war against her though she declared herself as a prophetess -because she was a Christian. Ridda, the war of Apostasy was not against any religion but Muslims those accept Islam and reject it for their tribal pride and honor. And thus placing Islam as false to them who were going to and willing to accept it. So, Sajah allowed to live unharmed with her family amongest her tribe. But she was safe during Rashidun Caliphate only, Muawiyya forcefully expelled her from the land that belongs to her. She move to Basra, Iraq and settled there.



The belief in the prophethood of Musaylima survived among his believers in the first decades of Islam. When Sajah moved to, kufa at Basra, some of the Musaylima's follower following her and set there around her. They later build a mosque there



Musaylima's adherents used to gather in the mosque of the Banu Hanifa in Kufa and the call la ilaha illal lla wa-Musaylimah rasullallah was heard from the minaret.



During his governorate in Kufa (Several years after the Prophet), Ibn Mas'ud came to know that one of the two men who had carried Musaylima’s letter to the Prophet re-appeared in the city who still believed in Musaylima’s messengership. Ibn Mas`ud ordered to arrest him. Then, when he brought to him, he told him that Musaylima had lost his immunity since he was no more an ambassador and got him beheaded. And then, he ordered the detention of the followers of Musaylima. Some fled, some captured and jailed. Those who repented, were released and those who clung to their faith were executed.

And then Sajah converted to Islam and were remain believer till her death.


Musaylima killed by Wahshi ibn Harb, the Ethiopean slave of Jubayr ibn Muta'im, who also killed Hamza in the battle of Uhud. on the eve of the conquest of Mecca, he was declared 'war criminals' by the Prophet. So he fled from Mecca and gone to Taif, where he lived among the Thaqeef for some time. In 9 Hijri, when the Thaqeef submitted to the Prophet, he too embraced Islam and went personally to swear allegiance to the Prophet.

The Prophet had not seen him for many years, and was not certain if he was the man. "Are you the Wahshi?" he asked.
--"Yes, O Messenger of Allah!"
--"Tell me how you killed Hamza."


Wahshi recounted the whole story from beginning to end. But there was no applause. On the face of the Prophet was a look of deep sorrow as he said "Never let me see you again." Something inside him warned Wahshi that to remain in Madina, where the memory of Hamza was deeply cherished, might be unhealthy for him. He left at once.



For the next two years he lived in various settlements around Taif, seeking obscurity and avoiding travellers. He was troubled by his conscience and feared for his life. It was a wretched existence. Then came the apostasy. Wahshi remained loyal to his new faith and elected to fight for Islam against the unbelievers. Then he participate Ridda, under the command of Khalid bin Walid and in the battle of Aqraba. When the battle inside the Garden of death starts, his eagle eye gazing for Musaylima and found him in a distance protected by his men. The range was not too long for him. Quickly he poised and aimed his javelin,



Wahshi later served in the Syrian Campaign under Khalid. When Syria had been conquered and established as a province of the Muslim State, he settled down at Emessa and lived to a old age. But he spent most of his days in a drunken stupor. He was even awarded 80 stripes by Umar for drinking (he was the first Muslim to be punished for this offence in Syria),  Yet unable to stay away from the bottle. Umar gave up, with the remark, "Perhaps the curse of Allah rests on the Savage for the blood of Hamza."



Wahshi spent his last days in Emessa and in later years, he became famous. Visitors crowed his home to see him once. Some even asked him about Hamza and Musaylima. He answered them recounting detail first the killing of Hamza and then of Musaylima.  And at the end, he would say, " Then with this javelin, in my days of unbelief I killed the best of men, and in my days of belief I killed the worst!" He then pick the javelin, that carefully kept besides his sitting with great admiration and put it on his lap slowly touching with care, with love in a unmindful state.



The End.

Not Yet Corrected.


Source:

M. J. Kister, Musaylima. (http://www.kister.huji.ac.il/content/musaylima)
Dale F Eickelman, Musayllmah: An Anthropological Appraisal.
http://islamicencyclopedia.org/
http://www.al-islam.org/the-message-ayatullah-jafar-subhani.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk.
ibn Ishaq (d. 768), Sirat Rasül Allah.
ibn Abd al-Barr al-Namari, al-Durar fi ikhtiur al-magh'zi wa-l-siyar,
ibn Sa'd, Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir.
Yaqut b. Abdallah al-Hamawi (d. 1229), Mu'jam al-bulddn. ll
al-Bukhari (d. 870), A.s- Sahih.
ad-Diyàrbakri (d. 1574), Ta'rikh al-Khàmis fi A'wal Anfus  an_Nafis.
al-Baladhuri, Kitàb Futüh al-Buldàn.
al-Bayhaqi, Dalaʾil al-Nubuwwa,
al-Bayhaqi, al-Maḥasin wa-l-Masawiʾ,
al-Kala'i, al-Iktifaʾ fi maghazi rasul Allah wa-l-Thalatha al-Khulafaʾ,
al-Kalbi, Jamharat al-Nasab,
al-Maqrizi, Imtaʿ al-asmaʾ,
al-Muqatil, Tafsir, ii, 555
al-Nuwayri, Nihayat al-arab fi funin al-adab,
al-Suhayli, Raud al-Unuf.
al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Ridda,
V. Barthold, Musaylima, in id., Sohineniya, 10 vols., Moscow 1963-73, vi, 549-74
Vacca, Sadjah, in EI 2, viii, 738-9
M. Watt, Musaylima, in EI 2, vii, 664-5
Wikipedia,
Qur'an

No comments:

Post a Comment