Everyone that works, works for an end in which he finds satisfaction. Wherefore, God, as He is perfect, hasn't need of satisfaction, because He has satisfaction Himself. And so, willing to work, He created before all things, the soul of His Habib, the Messiah, for whom He determined to create the whole, in order that the creatures should find joy and blessedness in God, whence His Habib should take delight in all His creatures, which He has appointed to be His Messenger, His slave. And wherefore this is, so save as thus He willed.
The Habib of God shall be a splendour that shall give gladness to nearly all that God hath made, for he is adorned with the spirit of understanding and of counsel, the spirit of wisdom and might, the spirit of fear and love, the spirit of prudence and temperance, he is adorned with the spirit of charity and mercy, the spirit of justice and piety, the spirit of gentleness and patience, which he hath received from God three times more than he hath given to all his creatures.
|Muhammad, the seal of the Prophets.|
And, the Messiah, shall come with power upon the ungodly, and shall destroy idolatry, insomuch that he shall make Satan confounded; for so promised God to Abraham, saying: "Behold, in your seed I will bless all the tribes of the earth; and as you have broken in pieces the idols, O Abraham, even so shall your seed do.""
From the above Criteria of the Messiah to the Mankind, We find that-
i). His soul created before the creation of all. Thus,
ii). He shall be the Mercy to the Creation. Thus,
iii). He shall be blessed by all. Thus,
iv). He shall be the Seal of the Prophets. Thus,
v). He shall be known to all Prophets. And,
vi). He shall be among the seeds of Abraham.
vii). He shall broke the idols into pieces as Abraham did.
Thus we confirm that all the above directed to Muhammad. And as he was the promised prophet as selected before the creation of all. Thus he was blessed by all Muslims, even by angels and through God Himself as written in the Qur'an- "Indeed, Allah confers blessing upon the Prophet, and His angels. O you who have believed, ask blessing upon him and ask [Allah to grant him] peace."- (Qur'an, 33: 56)
The evidence of finality of prophethood and Mercy to the mankind are the following verses of the Qur'an- Thus Qur'an says- Muhammad is .....the Messenger of God and the seal of the Prophets.-[Qur'an, 33:40] And,-
"This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My Mercy upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion."-[Qur'an, 5:3] And,-
We have sent you as a blessing for the people of the whole world.-[Qur'an, 21:107]
And, it is said in the Qur'an: We have sent you (Muhammad) forth as a witness, a bearer of good tidings, and a warner, as one who calls people to God by His leave, and as a bright, shining lamp.-[Qur'an, 33:45-46] And,-
"Those who disbelieve and avert from the way of God -He (God) will waste theirdeeds. And those who believe and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad- He (God) will remove from them their misdeeds and amend their condition and it is the truth from their Lord."-[Qur'an, 47:1-2]
So, we can conclude now which makes Muhammad as the Messiah to the Mankind. Actually, the appointment of the Prophet Muhammad is indeed a blessing and mercy of God to the whole world. This is because, he aroused the neglectful world from its heedlessness and gave it the knowledge of the criterion between truth and falsehood [Qur'an or Furqan], and warned it very clearly of both the ways of salvation and ruin. This makes him as Messiah to the mankind. It is said in a Hadith-
Narrated by Abu Hurayrah, Prophet Muhammad said, "My similitude in comparison with the prophets before me is that of a man who has built a house nicely and beautifully, except for a place of one brick in a corner. The people go about it and wonder at its beauty, but say: 'Would that this brick be put in its place!' So I am that brick, and I am the Seal of the Prophets (fa’anā ’l-labinah, wa anā khātamu’n-nabīyīn)". -[Kitab al-Manaqib, Hadith 44; al-Bukhari, Hadith 3293; Sahih Muslim, Hadith 4246; Kitab al-Fada'il, Hadith 24; Musnad of Ahmad, Hadith 8959; an-Nasa'i; Sunan al-Kubra, Hadith 10907; Ibn Hibban, Hadith 654]
It is narrated that a small group of Muhammad's companions said to him: "O Apostle of Allah, tell us about yourself." He answered them that he is the Servant of God, the Seal of the prophets, the Prayer of his forefather Abraham, and the Good News of Jesus."[ Musnad Ahmad, Hadith number: 17150-17151;Al-Mustadrak 'ala al-Sahîhayn, Hadith number: 4174]
Maimonides, a great Jews Rabbi describes the identity of the Messiah. To him- The Messiah will impel all of Israel to follow it [Muhammad did that with the sword] and to strengthen breaches in its observance [Qur'an corrected all previous scripture], and will fight God's wars [surely Muhammad did], this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one [sure]. If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple [ie Ka'ba] in its proper place [in its own glory, as Ka'ba cleaned from false idol] and gathered the dispersed ones of Is[r]mael [ie. Arabs] together [surely, the scattered Arabs for the first time became a nation], this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord God together [surely, we find it true, thee entire Muslim world centred to Ka'ba, Mecca], as it is stated: "For then I shall turn for the nations [all men of religion] a clear tongue [Muslims ordinance Arabic as the state language], so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord [Allah], and to worship Him with a united resolve.- [Zephaniah 3:9; Mishneh Torah, Laws of Kings 11:4]. That is, what the Rabbis defined Messiah, all that pointing to none but Muhammad directly.
Jesus said, "When will he [the Messiah to the Mankind] come to the world, the time shall be blessed." He also proclaimed- "Believe me that I have seen him and have done him reverence, even as every prophet hath seen him: seeing that of his spirit God giveth to them prophecy. And when I saw him my soul was filled with consolation, saying: "O Muhammad, God be with thee, and may he make me worthy to untie thy shoelatchet, for obtaining this I shall be a great prophet and holy one of God."'- [Barnabas, CH-44] And this is supported by Qur'an as-
"And recall when Allah took a covenant from the Prophets: 'This is the Book and the Wisdom which I have given you. But should a Prophet come to you confirming that which is already with you, you shall believe in him and shall help him. So saying, Allah asked: 'Do you agree and accept to take up the burden of the covenant?'
They answered: 'We agree,'
He said: 'Then bear witness; and I will be with you among the witness. -[Qur'an, 3:81]
The testimony Qur'an shows for Muhammad as- Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel,......... they who have believed in him, honored him, supported him and followed the light which was sent down with him - it is those who will be the successful. -[Qur'an, 7:157] And Qur'an Supported him as-
"And those who have disbelieved say, "You are not a messenger."
Say, "Sufficient is Allah as Witness between me and you, and [the witness of] whoever has knowledge of the Scripture." -(Qur'an, 13:43) ie. [for the worst case] if there find no men in the world, whoever has knowledge of the Scripture, surely the prophets have, and they shall be the witness, though Allah is Sufficient as Witness. And, thus he was protected by God, by His Angels and by the righteous Men- " ...truly Allah is his Protector, and Gabriel, and (every) righteous one among those who believe,- and furthermore, the angels - will back (him) up".-[Qur'an, 66:4]
As Muhammad the last Prophet, the Messiah for the Mankind, he shall be known to all prophets ie. his presence should be clearly marked in all scriptures. So we have to find what are the thing written in those scriptures.
Though the previous scriptures were changed a lot in the course of time by the rabbis, who were in-charge of them, yet we think there should have some sign still may present. We have to declare very honestly, if it was written there or not, will not changing anything, as one may find doubtless from the Qur'an that Promised Messiah for Mankind is Muhammad, yet here for the arguments of the article we have to analyze the prophesies those were still found in all the holy books of different religion, so that the reader may satisfy and understand who really the Messiah to the Mankind, the Last Kalki Avtar (Messenger)- according to their own Scripture.
1. Muhammad in Hindu Scripture:
The Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, and Brahmanas Granth are the four sacred books in Hindu religion. The last one is a commentary on the Vedas. These books are in Sanskrit. The Vedas are divided into four books: Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sam Veda and Atharva Veda. The Rig Veda was compiled in three long and different periods. According to Swami Daya Nand, founder of the Arya Samaj, the Vedas were revealed 1.3 billion (?) years ago, but the Hindu scholars and orientalists hold a opinion that they are not more than 4-6 thousand years old. Nevertheless, the Vedas considered the most authentic scriptures of the Hindus. Hindus are free to choose any of these beliefs. Now it is our quires what was told in those sacred books about Muhammad-
a. Sam Veda:
"Ma' [M] dau bartita Deva,
Da' [D]-Karante Prakirtiat,
Soda Veda Shastray Chasmrita"
Meanings: The dev, whose name starts with a 'M' and ends with a 'D' and who re-estabishes the tradition of eating beef, according to the Vedas, he is the man who is highly adorable.
b. Uttarayan Veda:
"La Ilha Harti Papam
Illa Ilaha Param Padam
Janma Baikuntha Par Aup-inuti
Janpi Namo Muhammadam "
Meanings: There is no shelter but "La Ilaha ... ... ... ..." to get rid of sin. The shelter of Ilah (Allah) is the actual shelter. If one is born on earth, there is no alternative to getting salvation from sin but to take shelter in Ilah (Allah). And for this, it is essential to follow the path shown by Muhammad.
c. Atharva-Vedic Upanishad:
"Aushwa illaley Mitravaruna-Raja Tashmat-Tani Divyani
Punastang Dudhya Habaiyami Milang Kabar Illallang
Alla-rahsul Mahamad Rakang Baraswa
Alla Allam Illallotey Illalla" \9\
Meanings: At an appropriate time, a Great man named Muhammad will appear, whose abode will be in the desert (Arabia). He will be accompanied by his companions.
d. Bhavishya Purana:
Ato Slinnastare Mlecchacharjen Sabannita.
Muhamad iti khatya, Shishya-Sakha-Samannitha \5\
Niripashcheb Mahadev Marusthal Nivasinam
Ganga jaleisch Snanya-pya punch-gavua Samannithe,
Chandanadi Virvarch Tustaba Manasa Harom \6\
Namaste Girijanath Marusthal Nivasine
Tripura Surnashay Bahu-Maya Pravathiney. \7\
Meanings: In the appointed time, a spiritual teacher named Muhammad will appear. He will live in the desert of Arabia with his companions.
O lord of the desert, O master of the world, all praise to you. You know the way to destroy all the sins of the world, Salam to you.
"Hotermindra Hotermindra Mahashurindraiy:
Alla Jeyshthang Paramang Purnang Brhman
Aullam Aulley Mahamad Kang
Barasha Aulley Aullam Aadalla Bukme
kkam Allabuk Nikhatkam." \3\
Meanings: The Supreme! The Most Exalted! The Most Powerful is HE. Alla is the best and the Greatest (or Highest). Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah. Allah is the Supreme, Complete and One without any Fault. He is Un-comparable. Alla is Comparable to Alla alone.
Idang Jana Upasuruta Narasangsasta Vishate.
Shashting sahasra Nabatinch Kauram Arush Meshu dabahe. \1\
Meanings: O Mankind! listen attentively, "the Praised One" [ie. Muhammad] will be raised among the men of protection [inhabitant surrounding Ka'ba]. We found him in the midst of sixty thousands enemy [the population of Mecca, during Muhammad was sixty thousands (60,090)]
2. Muhammad in Buddhist Scripture:
Gospel of Buddha:
"Ananda asked Buddha (the Blessed One), "Who shall teach us when thou art gone?"
And Buddha replied, 'I am not the first Buddha who came upon the earth nor shall I be the last. In due time another Buddha will arise in the world, a holy one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe, an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal truths, which I have taught you. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the climax and glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and pure such as I now proclaim. His disciples will number many thousands while mine number many hundreds.'
Ananda asked, 'How shall we know him?'
Buddha replied, 'He will be known as Maitreya'."-[Carus, Gospel of Buddha. p. 217-18]
This Maitrea (Arabic Maitrea means Rahmat) is Muhammad. According to Qur'an, he is Rahmatullilalamin. "We have sent you as a blessing for the people of the whole world".-[Qur'an, 21:107]
3. Muhammad in Zoroastrian Scripture:
The main book of persi religion founded by Spitama Zarathushtra, is Zend Avesta and Dasatir. Actually, these books are the knowledge (dualism) he earned as the result of his meditation in a quite and calm place, the sum of ancestral religion and some ancient foretold.
a. Zend Avesta:
"I am declaring, O Spitama Zarathushtra, the holy Ahmad (blessings of the righteous) shall come. From whom you will get good thought, good words, good deeds and a pure religion."
When the Zoroastrian people will forsake their religion and will become dissolute, a man will rise in Arabia, whose followers will conquer Persian and subjugate the arrogant Persians. Instead of worship fire in their own temples, they will turn their faces in prayer towards Kaaba of Abraham which will be cleared of all idols. They (the followers of the Arabian Prophet), will be a mercy unto the world. They will become masters of Persia, Madain, Tus, Balkh, the sacred places of the Zoroastrians and the neighboring territories. Their Prophet will be an eloquent man telling miraculous things.
4. Muhammad in Jewish Scripture:
a. In Torah:
It is Prophesied in the Genesis: The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people. — Genesis 49:10
This prophecy is often read in the light of Qur'an 3:81 as a prophecy of Muhammad. Some writers, like David Benjamin, believe that the Hebrew word Shiloh is actually a distortion of the Hebrew word "Shaluh" which means "Apostle/Messenger/One to be sent" or of the Hebrew word "Shiluah" which means "Apostle of God".
The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet "like unto me", from the "midst of thee", "of thy brethren"; unto him ye shall hearken;-[Deuteronomy, 18:15]
God says, "I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brothers, like to you, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak to them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whoever will not listen to my words which he shall speak in My Name, I will bound them to hear".-[Deuteronomy, 18:18-19]
And, Below was the blessings with which Moses blessed the sons of Israel before his death-
"The Lord came from Sinai,
And rose up from "Seir" to them;
"He shined" forth from mount "Paran",
And he came "with ten thousands of saints":
From his right hand went a "fiery law for them"".-[Deuteronomy, 33:1-2]
i). Like unto me ie. like Moses that means the said prophet shall be with a Divine Book of Complete Shariah Laws like Torah. It indicates no one but Muhammad, as he was the only one who fulfill such criterion.
ii). Midst of thee ie. among the seed of Abraham.
iii). Of thy brethren ie. He shall not come from the seeds/sons of Israel/Issac, but from their brethren ie. from the seeds of Ismael [Ismael was the elder brother of Issac].
iv). I will bound them to hear: Jews, whom were against Muhammad, defeated by Muslims, therefore, they have left options only to accept Islam or die.
v). Seir, masculine noun שער (sha'ar), meaning gate; "the means of controlled access to a city surrounded by mountain" which indicates none but Mecca;
vi). He shined ie. Prophet Muhammad enlighten with Qur'an from mount paran which is called as Jabal-e -Noor at Mecca;
vii). Paran, a place surrounded by mountains in the Arabian desert, ie. the city Mecca; and according to Muslim Geographer Yakut, Paran/Faran is an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in Torah. And at mount Paran, where Qur'an Reveled ie Jabal-e -Noor at Mecca;
viii). with ten thousands of saints ie. Muhammad came to conquer Mecca with ten thousand Sahaba (Saints), and
ix). Fiery law for them ie. Qur'an, the law book of God reveled on Muhammad.
b. In Jabur:
Muhammad is mentioned in Zabur (Psalm) as-
i). we find that David calls Muhammad (the Messiah, to the mankind) as lord, saying thus:
"The LORD said unto my lord,
"Sit on My Right Hand,
Until I make your enemies your footstool."” -[Psalm, 110:1]
Meanings: Muhammad is the Mercy to the creation and Messiah to the mankind, yet he was kicked from Mecca -his homeland to Medina by the Polytheist Quraish. Indicating this, in the above verse of the Jabur [Psalm 110:1], David told us that The LORD ie. GOD comfort Muhammad, Davids Lord, to sit him at His right hand ie. in the "south of al-Aqsa" [Madina is in the south of Temple of Solomon], until God make his enemies [ie. Quraish] as his footstool."
ii). Muhammad is also mentioned by name in the Jabur as-
"Hikko Mamittakim we kullo Muhammadim Zehdoodeh wa Zehraee Bayna Jerusalem."- [5:16].
Meanings: "His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem."
In the Hebrew language im is added for respect. Similarely im is added after the name of Prophet Muhammad to make it Muhammadim. In English translation they have even translated the name of Prophet Muhammad as "altogether lovely", but in the Old Testament in Hebrew, the name of Prophet Muhammad is yet present.
5. Muhammad in Christian Scripture:
In Gospel (of John) it is Prophesied: Jesus said to his Disciple,Nevertheless I tell you the truth;It is expedient for you that "I go away": for "if I go not away", "Ahmad" [Periclytos] [Hibru word Messiah in Greek is Periclytos, which means Ahmad in Arabic] will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he will come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:
Of sin, because they [Jews] believe not on me;
Of righteousness, because he aroused the neglectful world from its heedlessness and gave it the knowledge of the criterion between truth and falsehood [Qur'an or Furqan]
Of judgment, because the Prince of the World will judge.
I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the "Spirit of Truth", is come, "he will guide you into all truth": for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. "He shall glorify me": for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.-[John, 16:7-14].
The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet "like me" from among you, from your fellow Israelites. You must listen to him. -[John, 14:16] Ahmad, the Spirit of Truth, whom the Father will "send in my name", "he shall teach you all things", and "bring to your remembrance all that I said unto you." -[John, 14:26]-
Gospel made all these Prophecy only mentioning Muhammad, not any other as analysis shows as-
i). I go away: not definitely means that he is going to be killed.
ii). if I go not away: ie it was pre planned for the sake of Jews.
iii). Periclytos: Ahmad [the Praised One] or Muhammad [Who Praise, is a translation of the Koine Greek word Periclytos. and Qur'an gives the name as Ahmad, one of several ways to say Muhammad. Just as we we say Joseph as "Joe", "Jonathan" as "John" and in the same way we find in Arabic Muhammad as Ahmad or Hamad, where "hamd" means 'praise, ie. "The one who praises (God)" or "the Praised One"; etc. Again Greek Paracletos means Comforter also indicates Muhammad as his presence brought comfort and reconciliation to family of his milk-mother.
iv). "Spirit of Truth": The Spirit of Truth means "as-Sadik" in Arabic, before prophethood, Muhammad called with this name by the Quraysh,
v). He will guide you into all truth: Again Christian believed on a Jesus who died an evil death on cross with thieves. Though it was written in their scriptures, yet that was not written by Jesus but by some who even were not his disciple, not ever seem him. And as there was not a single eye witnessed and as from their scriptures (Canonical Gospels) one can prove very easily with simple logic that he was not died on Cross, nor even he Crucified. But the Christian could not able to see that as they are blind. However Muslim rejects their idea, as they failed to prove what they invent and God rejects them and their idea as false. And Muhammad explore this truth, and this was fore told by Jesus and said "He will guide you into all truth". Qur'an says-
That they said (in boast), "We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary, the Messenger of Allah";-but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but so it was made to appear to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts, with no (certain) knowledge, but only conjecture to follow, for of a surety they killed him not:- Nay, Allah raised him up unto Himself; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise; -[Qur'an, 4:157-158].
God lifted him up to a lofty station [4th Universe] where angels (those works to the created Universes as a part of extension of God) lives. And this was the truth about which Jesus telling.
vi). He shall glorify me: Bani Israelis deny Jesus as their Messiah. But Qur'an declares and confirms that Jesus was the Messiah to them. Again glorify him from falsehood of "Son of God" and Qur'an declares he was not. and this was also said by Jesus. He said to Barnabas:
"It is necessary that I should reveal to you great secrets, which, after that I shall be departed from the world, you shall reveal to it." he continued, ".. For if men had not called me God, I should have seen God here as he will be seen in paradise, and should have been safe not to fear the day of judgment. But God knows that I am innocent, because never have I harboured thought to be held more than a poor slave. No, I tell you that if I had not been called God I should have been carried into paradise when I shall depart from the world, whereas now I shall not go thither until the judgment..."
"....for this I must have great persecution, and shall be sold by one of my disciples for thirty pieces of silver. Whereupon I am sure that he who shall sell me shall be slain in my name, for that God shall take me up from the earth, and shall change the appearance of the traitor so that every one shall believe him to be me; nevertheless, when he dies an evil death, I shall abide in that dishonour for a long time in the world. But when Muhammad shall come, the sacred Messenger of God, that infamy shall be taken away. And this shall God do because I have confessed the truth of the Messiah who shall give me this reward, that I shall be known to be alive and to be a stranger to that death of infamy." -[Barnabas ch-112]
vii). Like me/send in my name: Like Jesus Muhammad also Messiah. Jesus was sent as Messiah to the children of Israel, but Muhammad was sent as Messiah for the Mankind.
viii). He (Ahmed) shall teach you all things: Quran covers before creation to afterlife.
ix). Bring to your remembrance all that I said unto you: Qur'an only remembering Christians what Jesus Teaches and told to his disciples-
"O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah [Almighty God] (sent) to you, confirming the Law (Torah or Old Testament) before me, and giving "Glad Tidings" of a messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." -[Qur'an, 61:6]
Qur'an states, Jesus came to the house of Israel with Gospel [Good News or Tidings], as Messiah to the house of Israel and with a 'Glad Tidings' for them of the upcoming Prophet Ahmad, who shall be the Messiah for the creation.
In Gospel of John it is said, -When the chief priests and Levites came to John the Baptist and asked him-Are you "Christ"?
Are you Elijah?
"If you are not the Messiah (Christ in Koine Greek), and not Elijah, then", They said, "Are you "THAT Prophet?" -[John 1:20]
John - [No], but then he told them that "someone who will come after him" and claims he is not worthy even to unlace his shoes.
At that time, for more than two thousand years, the Jews were waiting and looking for their Messiah, because they were being oppressed under all the rulers and they were foretold by their scribes that a Messiah shall come which was written in their holy books. And When shall he come, he lead them to victory over their oppressors and thus he gain for them mastery over this world.
i). "Christ": Christians should know that Christ is merely a shortened form of the Koine Greek word "christos," intended to mean the Hebrew word "Messiah."
ii). "THAT Prophet": Here, the question is who is "That Prophet?" John confessed, that he was not "Christ" nor even Elijah.
iii). "Someone who will come after him": Jesus not after him, but already came when John said this. So definitely the mentioned one shall be that prophet who shall be the Messiah for the mankind and will come after him.
Again John said, "I am baptizing with water, but who shall come after me, shall baptize you with fire."
Is Jesus Baptizes any, ever?
But Muhammad Baptized people with Blood [symbolically fire]. Thus Torah.-[Deuteronomy 18:19] said, who will not hear, I shall bound them to hear.
If prophets are from one God and all the intermidiate prophets are for particular nation, then logically there shall be a Prophet for Mankind who shall be the Seal of the Prophets. Thus we find in the last Scripture Muhammad is the Seal of the Prophets and known to all of the Prophets of God. Thus Qur'an says-
"And recall when Allah took a covenant from the Prophets: 'This is the Book and the Wisdom which I have given you. But should a Prophet come to you confirming that which is already with you, you shall believe in him and shall help him. So saying, Allah asked: 'Do you agree and accept to take up the "BURDEN of the covenant"?'
They answered: 'We agree,'
He said: 'Then bear witness; and I will be with you among the witness. -[Qur'an, 3:81]
Not yet Verified.
# A Christian asked, "Can You Prove in a better way that John 15: 23–16: 11 represents nothing but Muhammad?
@ Yah, and Sean W. Anthony, already done the Job. See, the article
Muhammad, Menahem, and the Paraclete: New light on Ibn Ishāq’s (d. 150/767) Arabic version of John 15: 23–16: 11.- by Sean W. Anthony, The Ohio State University.