Sunday, February 12, 2012

Jizya: A Decree to the Najranian Christian and the Jizya.

Muhammad sent a decree to Najranian Christian. It notifies on the following three subjects-
  • Accept Islam, Or
  • Pay Jizya Tax, Or
  • Be Prepare for a war.
Najran was the centre place of Arabian Christian. It was a vast area near Yemen. Previously Muhammad sent Mugira bin shoba to this area to spread Islam. People asked him hearing the following verses of Qur’an, related to Jesus and Mary - 

Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, "O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented. O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste."(19-27-28) 

‘O, Mugira, Why in this Qur’an, you have been told Mary as sister of Aaron?’ And Mugira came back to Medina failing to answer that Question.

When Mugira inform this to Muhammad, the gist what he said were- ‘At that period, it is consider to be gracious if someone named after the name of a prophet or pious one. Thus Anna named her daughter as Maryam (in short Mary) after the name of Moses’ and Aaron’s famous sister Maryam.

And when Mary came home with a baby when she was unmarried, People in a phase, called her ‘sister of Aaron’ instead of calling Mary or Maryam to compare her with two Maryams, one is pious, respectable and other is sinner, hatred and thus to show her, feel her the difference and to be shamed. ie What a dishonor of a holy name!’

However, getting the decree from Muhammad, the Christian leaders of Najran discuss the matter among them and sent a three member delegates to Medina. The members of this group were Sherahbil, Abdullah ibn Sherahbil and Jibar ibn Fayez. They began to discuss the matter of religion with Muhammad. They said, “O Muhammad! Do you want that, we pray to you and worship you as we do it to Jesus?”
He said, “How it is possible that we worship others leaving Allah or call others to do such?”

At this time the following Verse of Qur’an sent down- It is not for a human (prophet) that Allah should give him the Scripture and authority and prophethood and then he would say to the people, "Be servants to me rather than Allah," but (instead, he would say), "Be pious scholars of the Lord because of what you have taught of the Scripture and because of what you have studied."(3:79)

After being sent down the verse, at a stage, the representatives put disputs to prove Jesus as God. Then the following verses of Qur’an sent down- Indeed, the example of Jesus to Allah is like that of Adam. He created Him from dust; then He said to him, "Be," and he was. The truth is from your Lord, so do not be among the doubters. Then whoever argues with you about it after (this) knowledge has come to you - say, 

"Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly (together) and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars (among us)."

Indeed, this is the true narration. And there is no deity except Allah. And indeed, Allah is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.(3:59-62)

After this verse has been revealed, Muhammad called the delegation for ‘Mubahala’ and next day he came prepared for Mubahala with Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Hossain. Seeing the self-confidence of Muhammad, Sherahbil became afraid and said to his accompanied, “If he really a Messenger of God then we will be surely perish, if we make a Mubahala with him. Therefore, we have to find another way out.”
They said, “Then how do we release?”
He said, “It is good to compromise on condition.”
Then they agreed to pay the Jizya Tax fixed by Muhammad.

Jizya-It’s a poll tax demanded from the non Muslim subjects for residing independent and secure in an Islamic Republic. And this tax fixed for Najranian was- Annual two thousand pairs of clothes. One lungi and a sheet of clothe is a pair and the price of each pair fixed as one ukiya (one ukiya equal to 40 dirhams, or 11.5 gms of silver).

Jizya applied especially to followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism, who were tolerated in the practice of their religion because they were “peoples of the Scripture”. Polytheists of Arabia were not included, never a Jizya have taken from them.

The Jizya originally intended to be used for charitable purposes. The revenues were paid into the private treasuries of rulers. The Ottoman Sultans used the proceeds to pay military expenses.

Qur’an not fixed any rates for Jizya. It depends on the kind consideration of the ruler. In this regard, the direction of Muhammad was- ‘The man who will torture a non Muslim imposing a burden beyond his capacity, on the Day of Judgement I will take the side of the non Muslim. And surely he will be loser against whom I will stand.’

According to this instruction, Calipha Omar fixed Jizya during his period as- for rich 4 (four) dirham/month, for middle class 2 (two) dirham/month and for lower class 1(one) dirham/month (1 dirham equal to 3.5 masha of silver). The jizya was levied on men who had reached their majority; women, children, slaves, poor people, and monks were exempted.

The End.
Not Yet Verified

# Who is that one may able to explain, why the Qur'an says 'o sister of Aaron' instead of 'o sister of Moses' in verses 19-27-28?

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