Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Akbar the Great: The Founder of the Religion Ilahia.

Babar, the founder of Mughal Empior, was an orthodox Sunni however, remarkably tolerant towards the Shias. It was further compounded by the fact that two great Sunni bigots, Makhdoum-ul- Mulk and Abdun Nabi were holding the powerful official positions- supreme judge the time of Humayun and also Sher Shah Sur. Akbar, who did not have much of an education, it was necessary to follow their advice in matters of law, state and religion.

For a time, he felt powerless to take any action against the ulemas, but when their depredations crossed the limits, he took the plunge, removing them from their perches of power and influence. Then he declare himself as the spiritual and secular leader of his subjects. But he needed scriptural authority for such a step; Shaikh Mubarak found out verses from Qur'an and traditions of the Prophet supporting such actions of a Muslim ruler. A manifesto drafted by Shaikh Mubarak and duly signed by several jurists raised Akbar to the rank of a Mujtahid of his time (Mujtahid-i-Asr).

Shaikh Mubarak was persecuted (before he met Akbar) for his unconventional views. Faizi, Shaikh Mubarak's eldest son was a poet-philosopher, while Abul Fazal, the other son, was a famous intellectual even in his younger days. Akbar's discourses with the trio had apparendy created the most lasting influence in Akbar's mind.

In 1579, Akbar issued the Infallibility Decree, which made him the 'Pope as well as king', by which he appropriated to himself the right to choose any interpretation of the Quran in the interest of public good. This ended the dominance of bigots.

Fatehpur Sikri
Earlier, in 1575, Akbar had built the Ibadat Khana at Fatehpur Sikri. Here he gave impartial hearing to all religious experts-Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian and Zoroastrian. He was against rigid orthodoxy and narrow sectarianism of the Sunnis, who were bitterly opposed to his tolerant policy.

From 1579 to 1582, when the debates came to an end, representatives of other religions were admitted and the disputants met in the private apartments of the palace. Akbar now took the bold step of introducing his four-fold path of renunciation, the Din-i-Ilahi in 1582. The sacrifice of course was to be made to Akbar, who was now the vice regent of God. Prostrating before him and chanting Allahu Akbar, the intending devotee had to bequeath property, life, honour and religion to him.

[Badauni says it prompted a contemporary poet, Mulla Shiri to write a satirical couplet: " The king has this year claimed prophethood; God willing after a year he will become God."]

Din-i-Ilahi was not inspired by any Revelation nor was it based on any well- defined philosophy or theology. According to Dr. S. Roy: "It was deism modified by Hindu and predominant Zoroastrian influence, a religion without priests or books. It was an ethical rationalism leading to the ideal of mystic union of the soul with the divine. In this respect it was based on the Sufi idea of absorption of the soul in the Divine Being.

It enjoined such ethical and social reforms as recom­mending alms-giving and sparing of animal life, permitting remarriage of widows, prohibiting child- marriage and marriage among close relations as also as forced sati, recommending monogamy, enforcing chastity and controlling gambling and drinking by restricting the sale of drink. The Din-i-Ilahi was definitely an attempt at religious syncretism. It was as much a child of Akbar's spiritual development as a product of the age, following as it does the movements of Kabir and Nanak."

In the Ein-i-Akbari, Abul Fazal gives twelve principles of the Din-i-Ilahi after stating that Akbar is now "the spiritual guide of the nation" who "sees in the performance of this duty a means of pleasing God." These principles do not contain any dogma or belief which can be regarded as the tenets of a new faith in contradistinction to Hinduism, Islam or Christianity.

These principles describe the ceremonies per­formed by the Ilahia upon entry or initiation and the code of conduct to be followed by him. The intending Ilahia is to perform sijdah (prostration) before Akbar when he raises the Ilahia by touching his shoulders, places the turban on the entrants head and gives the Ilahia his own portrait or shast on which is engraved the chant Allahu Akbar. The Ilahia is required to celebrate his birthdays by feeding his associates and one special dinner once in his life in anticipation of death, which would liberate him from this material world of desires, sufferings and sorrows.

The Ilahias are required to abstain from a diet of meat as far as possible, not to dine with or use the utensils of butchers, fisher folk and bird trappers. They should not marry old women or minor girls and should be regularly giving alms to the poor and the needy. Their devotion to Akbar is graded according to the number of items or possessions they would pledge as a sacrifice.

These are property, life, honour and religion. The person pledging one of these to the emperor (his spiritual guide) would be of one degree of devotion, the person pledging two would be of two degrees and so on in ascending order upto four. It would be seen that the pledging of religion was regarded as the most valuable sacrifice of all, but was not essential to become elligible for the honour.

Mohsin Fani, the writer of Dabistan, says that he received the details given in the book from one Mirza Shah Muhammad, son of Mirza Baigh Khan, who says that his father got the information from Azam Khan, a trusted officer of Akbar and a follower of the Din-i-Ilahi. According to Dabistan, there are ten virtues which the Din-i-Ilahi professes. These are:

a).  Liberal-mindedness and generosity;
b).  Forgiveness of evil-doers and repulsion of anger with mildness;
c).  Abstinence from worldly desires;
d).  Non-attachment to the materialistic world;
e).  Careful weighing of pros and cons of actions to be taken;
f).   performance of noble deeds with courage;
g).  Softness of voice and gentle speech;
h).  Good behaviour to others;
i).   Absolutely no connection with bad characters and evil-doers; and
j).   Total dedication to God.

It appears there was another reason for the promulgation of the Din-i-Ilahi at that time. The Shias, Sunnis, Mehdavis and Sufis were then fighting merrily amongst themselves in Kashmir and in Ahmed Nagar thereby causing damage to the life and property of the subjects. Probably, Akbar felt that a syncretic creed would quell the warring urges of the factions and help bring peace and tranquility. Presumably, as the first step, he wanted to change the thinking of the leading men, ulemas and the nobility.

The Din-i-Ilahi was Akbar's attempt to unify different schools of religious thought. The Ain-i- Akbari states that there were only eighteen Ilahias who by pledging property, life, honour and religion qualified for the highest degree of devotion and the only Hindu among them was Raja Birbal. The total number of followers of all degrees were only a few thousands. According to Badauni, Raja Man Singh and Raja Bhagawan Dass, two of Akbar's most trusted lieutenants, categorically refused to join the creed.

The policy adopted by Akbar in relation to his Hindu subjects was generally independent of his personal fancies or beliefs in respect of religion that the Badshah should be the impartial sovereign of all his subjects, regardless of religion.

Nonetheless, Akbar married Hindu princesses, abolished pilgrim tax, removed jiziya, and provided the Hindus with employment readily when he was a practicing Muslim who took his religious duties seriously. Accepting Hindu princesses in marriage was not uncommon among the Muslim rulers, The Rajput families he married into, the Rajas of Amber, Bikaner or Marwar were never pressurized to convert into Islam. Without any restrictions they were taken into the highest command of military services or given the responsibility of the topmost civilian officer.

That was a policy decision Akbar entirely took on his own. No Shaikh Mubarak or Abul Fazal was behind this decision and this policy of Akbar afforded the strongest support to his reign and the reigns of his successors. It should also be admitted that the Rajput princes on their part gave their unflinching loyalty to the cause of the empire.

All that stated above is the outline and now we will find what the Religion Ilahia is. According to Dabistan, Akbar the Great said to his followers, "It is an indispensable duty to worship God, the all-just, and that it is necessary to praise those who are near him; among mankind, said he, "none is higher in rank than the planets, to the station of which no man can attain. None except God, the all-mighty, is the wish of the godly man, that is, whatever the godly undertakes, the object of his wish in it is God; for instance, he takes some food, that he may be able to perform the service of God; performs that service, that he may not be slack and deficient in his duties to God; desires of a wife, that he may give existence to a virtuous son, worshiper of God; pays veneration to the lights of the stars, because they are near God the all-just; and abandons him­self to sleep, that his soul may ascend to the upper world. Finally, the godly man is at all times in the service and obedience of the all-just, and at no moment is he negligent in pious practices."

Moreover, he thinks himself bound to abstain from hurting living beings, and he respects all the creatures of God. He does not cut grass and green trees without necessity, nor pollute the ground wantonly, except on a particular place; he throws neither water nor fire upon vile spots; he blesses the stars; further in this disposition he accustoms himself to absti­nence in speaking, eating, and sleeping; he con­strains himself to many occupations: one of them is to close with his fingers the exterior organs; he dwells with veneration upon the image of the lord of fires (the sun), until he had carried this exercise so far that, by merely covering his eyes, the great object is present to him; then, whichever of the illustrious and mighty personages of Hind, or Iran, or Greece, or any other place, he wishes to see, that person presents himself to his view, and he sees lights, explores many ways, and makes himself master of the temporary and the eternal.

The followers of this religion called themselves Ilahí, “divine,” because in all their actions the object of their wishes is God; and the lord Akbar has received the divine mission to establish the worship of the stars, which are to be the Qiblah of the pious. In the ancient books of the Hindus and Parsis, without num­ber, the excellence of the constellations is affirmed.

Náin Javed gave the information that, in the reign of Akbar the learned assembled, and Makh­dúm ul mulk gave the decision, that in this age it is not required to make the pilgrimage to Mecca; but that whoever makes it deserves punishment; for this reason; namely, because the road to Mecca by land passes through the middle of Iraq, and by sea through Guzrat and the ports of the Farangis; by land it is unavoidable to hear unseemly speeches from the Kazel báshan; and on the voyage by sea to suffer much impropriety in the transactions and commu­nications with the Farangis; because they have represented upon their papers the image of Jesus and the picture of Mary, which bear a resemblance to idolatry.

His majesty Akbar said one day that he heard from Shaikh Abdul Nabí, that one of the chief law­yers of the Sonnites declared the taking of nine wives to be legal, whilst other learned men denied it, and quoted the passage of the Koran: “Take in marriage such women as please you, two, or three, or four.” As even eighteen wives were said to be legal, then the learned gave the decision that it may be admis­sible, by the mode of matâh, “a temporary agree­ment,” by means of which the obtainment of women is facilitated for a certain price; and this is permitted pursuant to the creed of the Imám Málik. The sect of the Shíahs assert, that a son begotten in consequence of matâh, is preferable to all others. Nakib Khan followed the footsteps of the Imám Málik, who at last declared the matâh legal by a pub­lic patent. The sect of the Shíáhs quote, in sup­port of this, the following passage of the Koran: “Your women are a field for you: approach your field as you may like.” By which they pretend to show that any mode of coition is permitted.

Náin Javed said that, when the era of the Muslims was fixed, the people had a bad opinion of the companions of the prophet, and wise men called all the laws “prisons,” and declared the centre of faith rests upon reason. Nobody dis­puted with them. Then arrived learned Farangis, and argued in their speeches.

Shaikh Bhavan, so was called a learned Brahman from the country of Dekan, having conceived hatred towards his rela­tions, became a Muslim, and obtained this name: he had the fourth Véda in his possession, and inter­preted some precepts of this book, which contains many beauties, and a sentence like that of the Qur'an: “There is but one God;” and it was also stated therein, that whoever does not make this confession will not obtain salvation. In another place it was said that to eat cow's flesh was, under certain condi­tions, allowable; and elsewhere it was ordained to bury, and not to burn, a corpse. Thus, the before­said Shaikh was triumphant over the Brahmans. But Náin Javed related that he has requested him to interpret this passage; when he had translated it, its meaning was completely contrary and opposed to the sentence: “There is but one God,” and the restriction to eat cow's flesh also was contrary to the custom of the Muslims; and concerning the bury­ing of the dead he gave a different account from that which is lawful by the faith of the Muslims. His Majesty Akbar, with all those present, laughed at the Brahman, and said: “Look at these Musl­ims and Hindus, who among many conflicting arguments did not think to ask what was the meaning of the passages in question, and have praised me exceedingly.

Mír Sáíd Sheríf Amely came to the place of Dhabálpúr, and waited on his Majesty Akbar, who was then taking part in a public dispute between a num­ber of young men with some theologians, about Mah­múd, and he reduced them to silence. The Emperor conferred also many favors upon the said Mir, and the controversy in religion went so far that even doctors in law were accused of infidelity; learned men and Sufies declared in the court (Akbar's), that wise and capable men existed in all religions: where then is the superiority and preponderance? More than one thousand years have not elapsed since this faith was established.

In like manner, a number of children were put in a place called Gangmahel, where every thing neces­sary was furnished to them; but none could articu­late a letter; having remained there to their four­teenth year, they were found to be dumb; which made it evident, that letters and language are not natural to man, that is, cannot be used unless they have been acquired by instruction, and it is then only that the use of conversation becomes possible. From this the conclusion was drawn, that the world is very ancient, and language of a long date, whence the Brahmans derive arguments founded upon rea­son and testimony for the truth of their religion and the futility of others.

The crown of the pious Shaikh Táj-ud-din, the son of Shaikh Zakríá Jondehení Dahluví, explained the exterior rites of the mystic doctrine; the system of the unity of the real being; and the precepts of the religion of Pharâoh, which is the Feśus ul hikem, the bezels of philosophers, and the superiority of hope over fear. His Majesty Akbar liked the mode in which the Kings of Ajem performed worship; the Sufis, acknowledging holy personages as represent­ing the Khalífs of the age, used to prostrate them­selves before them, touching the ground with their foreheads; this was intended to mark the secret meaning that the angels had once adored Adam. The truth is, that the wise are the terrestrial angels, who worship an holy personage as a Khalífah, “vicar,” of God; and for having attained to this dig­nity, they venerate him under a similar character, and call him also their Kabâ and Kiblah: because the heart of a just man is the heart of the all-just God, and it is to its door that they turn in the wor­ship of God; in that sense Yâkúb and his sons pros­trated themselves before Yúsef.

Shaikh Yâkúb, a spiritual guide of the age, related, as from Aín alkasa Hamdání, that Muhammad is the manifest name of a guide, and Iblis the manifest name of a seducer. Mulla Muhammed Yzedí blamed the three Caliphs, and reviled the companions of the prophet and their followers; he seduced people to the faith of Shíâhs, and, having brought forth chapters of the Gospel, he drew from them a proof of the third person of the Trinity as being true, and confirmed the religion of the Naśaránains.

As his Majesty (Akbar) showed himself a friend of all men, he gave orders to the Nawab, the wise Shaikh Abu'l Faźal, who frequently witnessed the prodigious deeds of the emperor, to interpret several foreign works, and instead of the common sentence, “Bismilla,” etc., he adopted another, viz.:

“Thy name is a fortress, and thou art its foundation,
Thou art holy, and there is no God but God.”

The Rájah Birber said that the sun is an object all comprehensive; he causes the ripening of the grain, of the sown fields, of the fruits, and of all vegetables; and gives splendor and life; likewise, fire and water, and stones and trees, all are manifestations of God; he gave the mark on the forehead and the zunar. The learned brought it nearly to certainty that the sun, the great, the exalted luminary, is the benefactor of the world, and the protector of monarchs. The Yezdánian said, that the sun is the world of spirits, the self-existent being; and the sun of the world of bodies is a lumi­nary (a soul) which is the “the vicar,” of God.

A sect of the fire-worshipers stated that the learned entertain conflicting opinions about the existence of spirits, of unity, and the self-existing being; and other sects denied this; but no denial is possible about the existence, the splendor, and the beneficence of the sun.

His Majesty, Akbar, used to read prayers, contain­ing the praise of the sun, in the Persian, Hindi, Turkish, and Arabic languages, among which all was one prayer which is proper to the Hindus, and which they sing at midnight and at sun-rise. Besides, the emperor forbade his subjects to kill cows and to eat their flesh; because medical men have declared that cow's flesh causes itch, dry scab, leprosy, elephantiasis, and the like diseases, and is difficult to digest.

The Hindus say also that, as many advantages are derived from the cow, it is not right to kill it. The Yezdánian maintained that it is tyranny to kill harmless animals, and a tyrant is an enemy of God, the Almighty. But the learned of the time showed in the book Serať ul Mustakím, “the Right Path,” composed by the Imám Maejuddin Muhammad, son of Yàkub, son of Muhammad, Fírózábádí, that what is known- “The most excellent meat of both worlds is flesh.”

This has not been firmly established, and in the subject of the excellence of hersiah, a kind of pottage, nothing appeared, nor on the subject of the virtues of the white cock; and on the subject of bastards it is known: “The illegitimate son has no access to paradise.”

This was not firmly established, and is futile. His Majesty, proclaimed himself the joyous tidings, that cows ought not to be killed.

In like manner, the fire-worshipers, who had come from the town of Nóusarí, situated in the district of Gujerát, asserted the truth of the religion of Zoroaster, and the great reverence and worship due to fire. The emperor called them to his presence, and was pleased to take information about the way and lustre of their wise men. He also called from Persia a follower of Zardusht, named Arde­shir, to whom he sent money; he delivered the sacred fire with care to the wise Shaikh Abu'l Faźil, and established that it should be preserved in the interior apartment by night and day, perpetual henceforth, according to the rule of the Mobeds, and to the manner which was always practised in the fire-temples of the Kings of Ajem, because the Ití set was among the sentences of the Lord, and light from among the lights of the great Ized. He invited like­wise the fire-worshippers from Kirman to his presence, and questioned them about the subtilties of Zardusht's religion; and he wrote letters to Azer-Káivan, who was a chief of the Yezdáníán and Abá­dáníán, and invited him to India;

Azer-Káivan begged to be excused from coming, but sent a book of his own composition in praise of the self-existing being, of reason, the soul, the heavens, the stars, and the elements; as well as a word of advice to the King; all this contained in fourteen sections: every first line of each was in Persian pure derí; when read invertedly, it was Arabic; when turned about, Turkish; and when this was read in reversed order, it became Hindí.

The Nawab, the wise Shaikh Abu 'l Fazil placed a full confidence in Azer Káivan; he called the inhabitants of Ajem and Arabia “infestors of roads,” and the people of Islám “Accursed.” The wise Shaikh Abu 'l Fazil said in Fatehpúr to Abd ul Káder Bedávaní: “I have to complain of the authors of books for two reasons: the first is, that they have not explicitly enough written the account of ancient prophets, similar to that of their own prophet; the second is, that nothing remained of the industrious men whose name is not mentioned in the Tazkeret-ul-Awlía, ‘the Story of the Saints,’ and the Nafhát al-Uns, ‘the fragrant Gales of Mankind,’ and the like; and the family of the prophet, what was their guilt that their names were not admitted into them?”

Abd ul Káder gave no satisfactory answer. Ghází Khán Baddakshi, who had not his equal in logical science, treated explicitly and labo­riously in sections of the just Imám (Alí), and established by investigation his superior merit in other treatises; and other learned men exercised their sagacity upon this subject.

In the month Rajab of AH 987 (AD. 1579), the Emperor Akbar was ordered (by Heaven) to fix the sentence: “There is but one God, and Akbar is his Khalifah,” to be used. If the people really wished it, they might adopt this faith; and his Majesty declared, that this religion ought to be established by choice, and not by violence. In this manner, a number of men, choose this creed according to their conscience. The command came from God, that the attachment to the cause of the Lord God and to one's master has four degrees, which are: sacrifice of property, life, reputation, and religion. The command of the Ilahi, “divine,” faith means that, in case of an indispensable conflict, if one does not sacrifice all he possesses, he must renounce these four degrees. Further, it is the divine com­mand, that one may relinquish something of the four degrees, but never make an abandonment of his God.

The Emperor further said, that one thousand years have elapsed since the beginning of Muham­med's mission, and that this was the extent of the duration of this religion, now arrived at its term.

Another of his ordinances abolished absolutely the obligation of bathing after pollution by spermatic emission. The sages said that the most exquisite and best part of a man is “sperm,” and that the seed of creation is pure. What sense is there that, after the common natural secretions bathing be not required, whilst the release of a quantity of delicate matter is subject to an entire ablution? Yet it is suit­able to bathe before indulging sexual propensity.

It is equally absurd to prepare food for the spirit of a corpse, which then belongs to minerals: what sense is there in it? Yet the birth-day of a person is justly made a great festival, and called “the ban­quet of life.” Moreover, when one's soul has attained the full knowledge of the primitive cause, and has left its mortal garment, this day also is devoted to rejoicing, and named “the day of union.”

On account of the difference between the era of the Hindus and that of the Hejira used by the Arabs, the Emperor introduced a new one, begin­ning from the first year of the reign of Hamáyún, which is 963 of the Hejira (A. D. 1555-6); the names of the months were those used by the Kings of Ajem; and fourteen festivals in the year insti­tuted, coinciding with those of Zardusht, were named “the years and days of Ilahí.” This arrangement was established by Hakím Sháh Fattah ulla Shírází. On account of hearing so many dis­putes of the learned in the midst of the multitude, the custom of reading the comments on the Koran and the science of religion and law, were laid aside, and in their place astronomy, physic, arithmetic, mysticism, poetry, and chronology became cur­rent. The people of Ajem used to repeat frequently these verses:

“By living upon milk of camels and upon lizards,
The Arabians raised their fortune;
So that they now covet Ajem:
Fie upon thee, O revolving world, fie!”

Khaja Abdul Látíf, who was one of the distin­guished personages of Maverah ul-Naher, gifted with the talent of subtile distinctions, raised doubts upon the truth of the saying: “The neck of the Prophet Muhammed is similar to the neck of an idol.’

If that prevailed, then idolatry would be laudable. In like manner, the tradition about the she-camel straying far off, which is published in the Síra, “Acts and Deeds;” then the assault upon the cara­van of the Quraish, in the beginning of the Hijra; also demanding nine wives, and the interdiction of women from husbands according to the pleasure of the prophet, and this taking place; the companions giving up their body; which is to be known by reading the book Síra; further, the appointment of the three first Caliphs; the affair of Fadak; the war of Siffín; the victory of the Shiâs; and the defeat of the Sunnis: all these topics are subject to reflection.

At a convivial meeting on the new-year's festival, a Qazi and a Mufti were inclined to drink cups of wine. Sheikh Abu'l Fazil, as a counterpart to the explanation of the verse of the Qur'an, called “The Throne,” composed a sermon in two parts. He also translated the Mahábharat, whích is the history of the wars of the ancient Hindu chiefs. Some learned men denied absolutely the affair of Muham­med's marriage night with Siddíká, and blamed the deed of David concerning Uria's wife.

When the Sultán Khajah, who was one of the Ilahian, was about to leave this world, he said to the emperor: “Let not your Majesty bury me as if I had been an adorer of Divs.”

On that account he was placed in a tomb with lamps, like a person of dis­tinction, and a lattice was left towards the great majestic luminary, the splendor of which purifies from of all sins.

Further, orders were issued that, in imitation of the kings of Ajem, low people may be prevented from reading the books of the wise, and from the pursuit of sciences. By other ordinances, the affairs of the Hindus were to be decided by learned Brahmans, and those of Muslims by their own Káśis.

Likewise the followers of other reli­gions and persuasions received orders, that the head of a corpse may be laid in a tomb towards the east, and its feet towards the west; and that persons, even in their sleep, may dispose themselves in that direction.

It was further ordained, that the Ila­hian may not apply to any other sciences of the Arabs but to astronomy, arithmetic, physic, and philosophy, and not spend their life-time in the pursuit of what is not reasonable.

Akbar called the harmless animals the beasts of peace, and showed abhorrence to their slaughter. Thus the interdic­tion of slaying cows was confirmed.

It was also regulated, that a Hindu woman is not to be pre­vented from burning with her dead husband, but that the sacrifice ought to take place without vio­lence used towards, or abhorrence shewn by the widow.

Another regulation was that, whoever eats with one whose profession is the slaughter of animals, should have his hand cut off; but only a finger, if he belong to the people of his house.

Again, a woman who is going about in narrow streets or in market-places, without having at that time her face veiled, ought not to be approached by her husband; and a woman of improper conduct, who quarrels with her husband, ought to be sent to the place of prostitutes, whose business it is to offer themselves for sale.

In addition to this, in times of distressing famine, a father and a mother may hap­pen to sell their children under age; when they find themselves in better circumstances, they must be allowed, by giving money, to rescue their offspring from the bonds of servitude.

Moreover, a Hindu who, in his infancy, without his will, has been made a Muslim, if later he chooses to return to the faith of his fathers, is at liberty to do so, and is not to be prevented from it; also every person is permitted to profess whatever religion he chooses, and to pass, whenever he likes, from one religion to another. But if a Hindu woman, having fallen in love with a Muslim, wishes to adopt his religion, she can be taken by force and delivered up to her family. And likewise a Muslim woman, if she has fallen in love with an Hindu, and wishes to adopt his faith, is prevented from it, and not admitted in his caste.

 Mausoleum of Akbar.
Finally, the erection of a Temple of Idols, of a Church, of a Fire-Temple, and a Sepulchral Vault, ought not to be impeded, nor the building of a Mosque for the Muslims

Mulla Tersún Badakh­shi, who was a Muslim of the Hanifa creed, informed me, in the AH 1058 (A. D. 1648-9), that one day he went on a visit to the Sepulchre of Akbar, there, one of his friends, having hurt his foot in climbing up the holy tomb, set about reviling the khalifah of God. The companions said: “If the blessed Emperor, now in heaven, have any power, that man will certainly come to some misfortune.” Soon after, indeed, he broke a toe of his foot by a stone which had fallen down from a crevice of the wall.

In one of Akbar's works we find, that it is indispensable to worship God, the all-just, and necessary to praise the beings near him; that none of mankind rise to the rank of stars, as men are not equal to the dignity of celestial luminaries. The Emperor inculcated on his followers, that a godly man ought to know no other object of his wishes but God, the Almighty; that is, whatever business the godly undertakes, his wish in that business ought to tend towards God.

The End.
Not Yet Justified.

Vijay Rayan, Essay on Din-i-Ilahi and Suleh-i-Kul.
Muhsin Fani, The Dabistan-i Mazahib ["School of Religions"] tr. by David Shea and Anthony Troyer, 1843.

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